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J. K. Tyl`s Theatre

Robert Dvořáček

history of the theatresupplementtechnical dataHistoric equipment

Important events

(detail)1809 | First stage

The fist stage was erected by local amateur actors in 1809 in a dancing hall, located in the first floor of the inn of mister Hůlka (presently the hotel Černý kůň).


(detail)1864 | Amateur Theatre Association
Discussions about the future of theatrical activity led eventually to foundation of the “Kostelec  Amateur Theatre Association” in 1864. The association was officially approved a year later. The association had found its permanent seat in the inn U Buršů later “Hotel Praha”.
(detail)1910 | Fire
A two storey building of the hotel “Praha” burnt town together with the theatre hall in night fire on the night of 13 to 14 August of 1910 and the tenant at that time- Kostelec brewery- decided that there would not be a place for theatre in the new hotel.
(detail)1924 | design

The Association assigned commissioned Robert  Dvořáček from Kostelec to  design the building on the beginning of the 1924, the emerging building of the theatre was deeply inspired by designs of the renowned Viennese designers Fellner & Helmer (which were in illegal circulation among building entrepreneurs at that time).


(detail)1924 | Construction

The district authority in Náchod issued a permit for construction on 15th August of 1924. The foundation stone of the new theatre was ceremonially laid on 3rd August of 1924; the actual construction was carried out including  the whole installation of the inner furniture in a very short period of fifteen months.


(detail)25.10.1925 | opening

The ceremonial opening of the new building took place on 25th October of 1925 with a performance “the Lantern” by Alois Jirásek and “ the Bandit” by Karel Čapek. The city building office issued an additional permit for the structure on 24.10. 1926. 


(detail)1990 | reconstruction

Apart of minor renovations of the building, a major reconstruction was carried out between September of 1989 to the spring of 1990.


People

History

The origins of theatre in Červený Kostelec are associated with  František Mach, a cloth maker of patriotic inclination. The fist stage was erected by local amateur actors in 1809 in a dancing hall, located in the first floor of the inn of mister Hůlka (presently the hotel Černý kůň). Though  the regular activity of Červený Kostelec amateur actors diminished for few years after fire in the city in 1831,   chaplain Ehl stirred them up already in 1835. The amateur actors performed their plays in the inn „U třech tatrmanů“ on the square around the year 1848. Discussions about the future of theatrical activity led eventually to foundation of the “Kostelec  Amateur Theatre Association” in 1864. The association was officially approved a year later. The association had found its permanent seat in the inn U Buršů from 1864. Náchod painter Šrůtek painted a veduta of Prague on a curtain in its hall, converted for theatre, that gave an impetus to change of the name of the enterprise to later “Hotel Praha”. Academic painter Gustav Vacek painted sceneries for individual productions of the Association. A two storey building of the hotel “Praha” burnt town together with the theatre hall in night fire on the night of 13 to 14 August of 1910 and the tenant at that time- Kostelec brewery- decided that there would not be a place for theatre in the new hotel. The Kostelec amateur actors lost roof over their heads after almost fifty years and were forced to rotate on temporary stages in the following years in the inns U Středů, U Zahálků, U Káhlerů, in Dvorana u Chrásků, in Lidový dům or to perform in open air.

A decision about necessity of  theatre building was made on 2nd of January of 1921 in restaurant „Záložna“. Financial covering of the structure should have been secured by collections, profits from theatrical productions and social gatherings. Project documentation was being prepared already in 1922, when architect František Neterda elaborated a first version of the theatre design  with a capacity of 400 spectators – considerably different from the present building. The Amateur Theatre Association, represented by Adolf Keyzlar, applied for a permit for construction of a theatre with hostelry rooms. However, though the construction was authorized, its realization has never been initiated in the end. The Association commissioned Kostelec architect Robert  Dvořáček to  design the project at the beginning of the 1924. According to  later testimony by Dvořáček’s building assistant- architect František Holý, the emerging building of the theatre was deeply inspired by designs of the renowned Viennese designers Fellner & Helmer (which were in illegal circulation among building entrepreneurs in this time). Náchod builder Antonín Hartman elaborated static calculation of the structure that was signed and stamped by architect Dvořáček in June of 1924, a steel truss frame over the stage was provided  by the firm A. Rainberg, Engineering   Plant Pardubice. The district authority in Náchod issued a permit for construction on 15th August of 1924. The foundation stone of the new theatre was ceremonially laid on 3rd August of 1924; the actual construction was carried out including of the whole installation of the   inner furniture in a very short period of fifteen months. The ceremonial opening of the new building took place on 25th October of 1925 with a performance “the Lantern” by Alois Jirásek and “the Bandit” by Karel Čapek. The municipal building office issued an additional permit for the structure on 24.10. 1926. 

The last change of the new structure, construction of a restaurant under the stage, was authorized  in July of 1930. The Terrazzo floors were laid in the building, the floor in the lecture hall was parquet. The total capacity of the theatre was 450 seats. The auditorium with an oblique slope was composed of 15 rows of seats (together 300) and separated standing rooms in the rear, divided into male and female zones. There were 46 box seats in the dress circle (three boxes with 8 seats, two with five seats and two with six seats).

After the opening of the desired new structure, the Association was burdened by a debt of 600 thousands Crowns that was completely paid off not until May of 1943. The Association was incorporated into a factory club of the National Enterprise Jiskra at that time (later the National Enterprise Tepna). The building was renamed to J.K. Tyl Theatre in 1956. Apart of minor renovations of the building, a major reconstruction was carried out between September of 1989 to the spring of 1990 (an exchange of floors, seats, installation of new lighting and sound booth, gas heating, exchange of technological equipment).

 

Sources and literature: 

- Kronika divadelních ochotníků, založená roku 1864.

- Alfréd Javorin, Divadla a divadelní sály v českých krajích. I. Divadla. Praha 1949, s. 78-79. - Ludvík Mühlstein - Jiří Šolc, Červený Kostelec. Červený Kostelec 1988.

- Jiří Hilmera, Česká divadelní architektura. Praha 1999, s. 107.

- Almanach Spolku divadelních ochotníků v Červeném Kostelci ke 140. výročí ustavení spolku a k 80. výročí otevření divadla. Červený Kostelec 2005, nestr.

- Jiří Vokoun, 80 let budovy divadla v Červeném Kostelci. In: Červenokostelecký zpravodaj 2005, s. 11.

- Jiří Vokoun, Budova divadla v Červeném Kostelci (undated typescript, two pages)

 

Tags: detached building, Interwar period

 

Author: Pavel Panoch

Translator: Jan Purkert

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