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Dom kultúry

Dušan Jurkovič

alias Katolícky kruh, Katolícky dom, Spolkový dom
history of the theatresupplementtechnical dataHistoric equipment

Important events

(detail)1905 | construction



House of Culture in Skalica Skalica, a town situated near the border with Moravia, lies one of the longest traditions of the Slovak theater in the country. First Latin-Slovak performance, pertaining to land the Jesuit Church Theatre, was already playes here in 1701. Approximatelly one hundred and fifty years later, in 1855, also played the Slovak party of volunteer. Most intense cultural life was not triggered until after the arrival of two major national revivalist in the city in the late 19th century - a doctor and priest Paul Blaha Louis Okánik. One of the highlights and tangible evidence of the revival of national-action status have been called. Catholic circles at Skalica - buildings, several umbrella organizations and cultural associations, also called the Federal or the Peasant's House. Paul Blaha and Louis Okánik associated activity in the local Catholic League, called Catholic circles. Initially closed nature of the association, focused on through improved relations between its members, dating, entertainment, or to organize the arrival of two appointed to senior posts at the end of the 19th century will soon become a national learning-center revival of the people in the neighborhood. Society organizes lectures, performances, entertainment, focused on the fight against the scourge of the company, particularly drunkenness. Theatre played their own guild members with their families, sometimes the simple games of Bethlehem and the biblical pastoral, sometimes even the Czech and Slovak games. Some of them he himself Okánik. Theatre often also serve as a discipline. It was a common phenomenon attributed by invitation performances, whether in a regional magazine, Advancing communication "Do not go to the theater room with his hat on his head! Shout to the performances! Do not dance with a burning cigar in mouth, eyes to the girls fired and destroyed clothes! The ceremony will take ceremonial dress! "We are constantly expanding federal activity and Okánik Blaha led to the idea of their own buildings, but during the first years were their ideas rather, unclear and temporary solutions. The first year there was a guild has three rented rooms in a local inn, later called in several rooms. Gajda's house, where she was also a theater hall. Only in 1903 was to buy an older one-story house on the Main Square. In September that year he moved into just two clubs, except in Catholic circles and in 1902 the existing Charitable Society St. Vincent. Create new - only the charity organization, closely related to the idea of the status of new federal buildings. National Catholic character of the ring was already found in Hungary in that time the suspect so authorities could easily happen that would prevent construction of a building. I therefore Association St. Vincent was seen as the sole owner of the building. New building built on the site odkúpeného old house on the Main Square in the years 1904-1905. Architects choose not random, it became famous Slovak architect Dušan Jurkovic, a friend of Paul's well-being and a native of the not too distant Tura Meadows, creator of the Slovak national style. Preserving the name of the builder - Šaniak from Hungary Hradiste. Costs amounted to EUR 130 thousand dollars, which was provided mainly in bank loans and partly by voluntary collections. In asking for financial assistance went Blahova wife Giselle even to Esztergom to theology professor John Negro, a native of Skalica godfathers foolish children. Nevertheless, the two main organizers, Welfare and Okánik, forced a substantial amount of construction and long-term interest cash loans to pay for his own income. Inauguration of new Federal buildings throughout the house lasted three days, from 28 September to 1 October 1905, reportedly attended by 4,000 people from a closer and more distant areas. On Friday and Saturday to introduce local amateur dramatic poem Julius Zayer Radúz and Mahuliena, program on Sunday was even more festive. After the service of God's folk costume and accompanied by the square of its own new building was consecrated his priestly functions Okánik Louis. In his speech did not forget to mention the main objective of the building as seen with Blaho, "House may serve the Slovaks as a family home that did not run for more." Similarly, the Regional Progress magazine, published the day before a formal dedication, and Paul Bliss said: "The house that resulted from the people earnestly desire, the heart of those applications to hide its head freely, freely under their own roof. Take your rings in his arms and beneficial institution, provide shelter education, science, art and everything in favor of serving the people ". Celebration continued in the afternoon lunch together, opening the museum, created from the collections of Paul Blaha, music race village musicians and evening concerts peasant Quartet. Building built on a deep plot close semidetached houses on the square, which also influenced its basic layout. In front of ground floor commercial spaces are located on Farmer's - food-bank association and, for them to close around the depth extending's stores and two rooms Catholic circles. Then followed a theater hall with the rooms, greenroom and performing warehouse. Three rooms on the second floor were reserved for the museum, library and fill balance apartment for Paul Blaha. Building as a whole approached architect Dusan Jurkovic in the spirit of its typical buildings from the turn of the century, inspired by Art Nouveau and domestic folk tradition. Federal house thus became "one of the most remarkable works of architecture of the 20th century in the city "[Moravčíková Henrieta: Skalica, in: Architecture and Urbanism, Volume XXXIII, 1999, no. 1-2, Annex, p. CXXIII-CXXIV., Here p. CXXXIII]. The entrance facade, oriented to the square, decorated architect triangular shield with ornately carved wooden balcony design, decorative metal brackets of the main cornice and ornate decorative metal awnings, not least the figural or crop mosaic wall decorations. Author proposals mosaic decoration was a Czech painter Vlasta Burian. Ales with Jurkovičov already collaborated with the architect's earlier works and fit his style of opinion and ideas. I, therefore, the author Aleš mosaics designed himself Jurkovic. Mosaics made by Alešových proposals B. Škarda from Brno. Figural scenes in the gable and two rectangular boxes on either side of the central window, a wreath on the first floor as a horizontal theme decorated with acanthus ornaments, signs the clubs and portrait medallion of St.. Vincent. A similar spirit of folk art and Art Nouveau architectural Jurkovic also brought into the interior of the building. By Area theater lobby put inside a wooden structure with pillars carved beams, between which other fields apply wall-painting. Their author was Frolka Antos, although initially envisaged when decorating rooms with his teacher painter Jožom stampede. Three field wall painting on the east wall of the longitudinal halls and one scene to the rear, the south wall above the entrance, folklore shows figurative scenes (silk, two men in the meadow, piper with a guy dancing Lanžhot of throws). Frolka was also the author of a theater curtain with a canvas by the arrival of spring. A prominent art nouveau motif are oriented inside window dormers with regular square division, inspired by works of the Scottish architect Ch. R. Mackintosh, possibly Japanese architecture. [According Bořutová, Dana: One Hundred Years of the Federal House in Skalica, in: Project, XLVII, 2005, No. 6, p. 61-64]. Initially, to lobby to accommodate 700 people. As already mentioned, the Catholic Circle building originally provided space for the activities of urban societies, shops, library, museum and ultimately for the theater. After World War II, it brought under state control in 1952 also opened District Museum in Skalica, since 1965 bearing the name Záhorská museum. In 1989, appointed by the institution moved to new premises in neighboring burgher's house. The former Catholic Circle came into the ownership of the city, part of the premises is still used for the presentation of museum collections. In the theater hall of the theater performances taking place sporadically, or other social events. During the more than century-old building underwent the existence of several modifications, but still retain its essential features. At the end of the fifties and early sixties were the works carried out major interventions in the exterior and interior part iv. Partially facade was modified by the project architect. Morena (Institute Project for the construction of Bratislava). Abrogation of the original entries into the buildings and their replacement by single triple entry. While the original windows on the ground floor exchanged for new and there was also exchange of the original decorative mosaic inscription in the middle of a new facade. Bilingual Hungarian-Slovak Catholic House inscription replacing the current House of Culture. During this period there was also less disposition to change entrances to the building were from the east and south of the affiliated new additions. To its original appearance substantially affected, however, only single-storey extension of the south, which replaced the rear by the previous Court. Stair hall, small hall, has also opened a new office spaces on floors only altered the courtyard façade. In the years 1960-1965 (I Meszárošová) and 1993, the restoration of the murals in the hall. The two-storey building of the House of Culture in Skalica is located in the historic city as part of the central city square (Freedom Square). It is part of a rowhouse, forming the north side of the square. Originally close to the yard part of the street block plan sucked original building was rebuilt after the sixties, extended into the present form of the letter L. The solution required a representative portrayal of a single facade - the south, oriented to the square. This is a osemosovú storey facade with asymmetrically situated triangular shield, occupying the width of three window axis. Before the shield is predstavaný wooden balcony, abutting with decorative, carved in wood consoles to shallow rizalitový projection on the first floor, occupying the same width as a shield. Facade on the ground floor was originally divided triplet separate entries in the second, sixth and eighth axis, now replacing them in the middle of three inputs. Other axis complete simple rectangular windows with skylights. Windows in the first three axes associates each arc metal awning. The second floor facade is broken series of rectangular windows with triangular end, where the upper part like the window and door openings, completed ground floor skylights. Façade completes the key terms in the space under-roof projecting cornice, ornately depicted by metal brackets. Span covers the green ceramic tiles. Facade is complemented artistically rich mosaic decoration, concentrated in the area of the shield and fields around the central windows on the first floor, also in the belt between the first and second floor, where the plinth area. Figural scene in gable representing St. Stephen Blessing Slovak people, as Detvanec (according to different interpretations of the Slovak Wallachians) to the right of the central windows on the first floor and the Hussite warrior (according to different interpretations and John Spark of Brandys, Uhorská tycoon, knight) to the left of the window said. Between the windows on the desktop first and second floor stretches horizontal decorated with acanthus motif ornaments. Over triplet windows on the left side as it bilingual inscription Gaydasági és fogyaszatási szövetkezet.  field over the central entrance sign House of Culture (originally Kat.ház - Cat.'s House) and finally from the right side inscription Sz. Vincze - St. Vincent. Holy Name Society. Vincent is accompanied by a portrait medallion of a saint protected small arched metal awning. The overall visual effect of the facade is dopovedané green mosaic plinth area, green wood framing the window openings, light-blue painted doors and window frames and beige plaster. The internal layout of the building used by a gradual shift toward deep space with a central longitudinal narrow corridor (formerly Justice). Starts directly from the main entrance vestibule and about half of the ground plan is rectangular wraps in an easterly direction to the new annexe. Forms of communication,  rooms on both sides through the door and the window openings. West wing away from the front facade are trading room, lounge and club, East begins dressing rooms and stairs to first floor, separated from the hall and built the backbone of the counter. In the dressing room hallway followed by two follow-room coffee. Hall is bridged with a barrel vault skylight of Verlith glass and concrete blocks. The walls are up to three quarters lined with wood, wood as well as wing doors and window frames, oriented to the corridor. The stone pavement. The corridor terminated viackrídlové door to it on the north side separated from the next transverse corridor. The lateral passage is open to original theater hall, smaller hall, erected on its western side, like all the new east wing. Maybe from her entering into cafes. Theater room is a room with an indoor auditorium, oriented to the north side. The main entrance is situated at the back against the stands, but the hall can also enter the triplet of inputs from the west side extension. Into the hall with brick outer wall is inserted wooden columnar structure, offset from the outer walls of about one meter wide. It forms a supporting structure for tucked inside window dormers, while the visible wooden roof construction. Truss architect left visible through the open ceiling, the space between the wooden beams filled cork panels. Vertical columns of wooden structures are richly carved. Ceiling beams were originally painted in the colors red-blue-white, now they are brown. Vikierové windows filled glass concrete blocks, mounted in wooden frames, which creates a window on the desktop impressive square grid. The space between the exterior walls and wooden structure on both sides of the oblong hall originally filled wooden benches for seating, today to retain only the eastern wall. Wooden columnar structure appears on the front wall of the auditorium. Rather than supporting element, however, together with harlequin painted decoration is used to stage the portal. Similarly, the richly decorated wooden structure was applied to the back wall of the theater hall, which carries a wooden balcony on the second floor gallery. The walls of the theater hall is plastered and colored in pink with white rectangular areas by omitting the decorative painting and figural decoration in the space between and below the windows. Overall performance hall complement the decorative metal chandeliers with colored stained glass. A similar motif inserted wooden structure was followed as in the former Federal Facilities Catholic Circle - reading room, coffee shop today. An area dominated by strong wooden ceiling tiles accorded with supporting beams and a central wooden pillar bearing the remains of the original lamp. Today, it retained only the upper part octagonal with colorful stained glass. Light provides a pair of flat four part chandeliers from a later period, imitating popular form of lighting. Reference to the folk tradition carries the internal representation of modern additions, especially staircase hall in the eastern bloc. It is accessible from the transverse hall the old building and is the intermediary communication node access to every room of the most significant new building. From the east side of it has followed an open floor plan and corridor letters L, leading to small rooms. Staircase leads to the upper gallery space to the museum on the first floor of the old buildings and offices of today's building manager in the new building, as well as a smoking area in the basement club. Main visual accent area is a wooden stair rails, decorated with carved folk motifs and large flat luster with wood frame and glazing, wooden mesh structure divided into smaller square areas. Some of them are decorated with paintings with folk motifs. Folk motifs have also been used to decorate the tile floors. Wooden structure, showing the interior solution theaters and other facilities are also used in the form of pergolas, orbiting around three sides of the inner court. With the exception of the western wall, corresponding to the original old building marked gender segregated only by large windows with triangular end (adjacent to the theater hall), are also here's exterior walls decorated with folk motifs in suprafenestrových fields between the windows first and second floors, as well as wooden window frames. Window frames themselves are not inserted directly into the brick lining, but the frame of Verlith glass and concrete blocks, which evokes the use of decorative window architraves.   




Author: Viera Dlhánová

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