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Divadlo Jána Palárika v Trnave

alias Krajové divadlo v Trnave, Mestské divadlo, Divadlo pre deti a mládež
history of the theatresupplementtechnical dataHistoric equipment

Important events

(detail)26.12.1831 | opening


The first signs of theatrical life in Trnava appeared already in the Middle Ages, when the city attended the wandering comedians, singers and actors, showcasing their art during the city markets and various festivals. Many old names of streets, bearing the Theatrum show that featured predominantly in open public places. Major theater center, however, came to town in the 16th to 18 century. Then it became the seat of the Jesuit Order and several religious institute managed schools, including Jesuit school and university. Since 1617 was mention the performances of the first Jesuit school play. It is likely that from the beginning they played in halls and classrooms of school buildings, since the first mention of the construction of permanent theaters we have preserved up to 1692. It was a hall with stage and auditorium, built as part of one of the school buildings. Theatre historian Ladislav Čavojský its existence agrees with the so-called theater. Seminarium Marianum (ie Marian seminar), which was preserved until 1914 and his appearance, proves a photo. Milena Garlic-Michalcová considering the existence of two theater spaces, which dates back to 1692 establishment of a theater hall in the building of the University of Trnava, while mentioned in the Marian Hall of the seminar was not specifically in the 90's of 17th century. [The existence of two theater halls originally thought and Ladislav Čavojský Article Contribution to the History Theatre in Trnava in 1871, later edited by his presumption in favor of a theater. Čavojský, Ladislav: Theatre in Trnava, Bratislava Obzor 1982; Čavojský, Ladislav: Contribution to the History Theatre in Trnava in 1871, in: Slovak Theatre, Vol. 6, 1958, no. 5, p. 525-538; Garlic-Michalcová, Miles: The theatrical origins in Slovakia, Bratislava National Theatre Centre, 1997.] While the form of the first hall we mention, in the Marian Theatre on the seminar, we know that had two floors, about a hundred cities in pit, twelve boxes, balcony, and gallery space for päťdesiatčlenný orchestra. The theater is on the stage and played by the Jesuit Order in 1773 and after university moved to Buda in 1777. In addition to school theatrical performances, however, from that period - that is 70-ies 18th century, coming on stage and play his itinerant theater companies.

Thirty years from 18th century were added in the new city theater. Its formation was based on the need for a theatrical spaces available for general urban population, whereas in the Marian Theatre professional seminar was designed for a narrow range invited viewers from among the nobility and clergy and played out to this, probably only in local inns and halls, for example. The inn's porch in a black eagle (the site of today's theater). Another immediate impulses were also purely commercial interests of the local nobility, merchants and craftsmen who wanted the establishment of the theater to attract the nobility of the surrounding city. ["Famous, free and royal town of Trnava, once a rich amount of religious orders - now canceled proud to college - translated into Pest, venerable Capitol - which has already returned to its original office in Esztergom, invalids - which has also translated with officers and subordinate staff in Budapest, recently lost a lot of people. (...) We took to heart the state of Trnava, and we investigated how to mitigate his fate and provide assistance as our strength would admit. We felt that we find effective help that we move the nobility, who owns property near the town, at least in winter, found permanent residence in the city. Thus we could provide for wider consumption (goods), the greater turnover of money and a greater opportunity to earn the townspeople. To achieve this goal, we thought the main attraction build a permanent theater in this town, so we wanted to provide even greater opportunity for nobility mental recovery. "- Letter from the representatives of the Theatre Association in Trnava, addressed to the urban municipality, cited in: Čavojský, Ladislav : Contribution to the History Theatre in Trnava in 1871, in: Slovak Theatre, Vol. 6, 1958, no. 5, p. 525-538, here p. 540-541.]. Organizer of construction became the Theatre Association, composed of representatives of major urban nobility and the bourgeoisie. Initially he planned to build a theater on the ground outside the city walls in the center and next to the Franciscan church, where at that time located slaughterhouse. Passing the slaughterhouse to another location would require significant costs, leading to a final decision to build on the site of an earlier wooden dance hall in the yard of an inn, The Black Eagle. Construction of new theaters is has teamed up with the upcoming reconstruction of the inn. Both works transferred builder Bernhard Grünn. The construction began in early 1831, although the highest authorities to allow construction in April and plans were approved in May of that year. In less than a year the building was completed and inaugurated Theatre 26.12.1831. The main part of the expenses associated with the construction of buildings contributed by the city, including the supply of building land. Theatre Association in part from their own resources and partly through financial collection was contributed by the citizens of the town home theater equipment. Thanks to the members of the Theatre Association to ensure right to operate the theater for the next 20 years. Until their expiry, in 1851, went into the building owned by the city. 

Municipal theater in World War II - until 1918 was mainly visited the Hungarian and German theatrical company, from 1918 mainly Czech, Slovak and local amateur files. From 1944 he worked a dramatic set of university Students' Association, which was the immediate follow-art studio. The building has acted in local theater since 1948, when the building was closed for safety reasons. After a thorough renovation, lasting twelve years, first January 1960, the theater became a professional  called Regional Theatre in Trnava. Treated here but only in the theater network reorganization 30th July 1965 under which the merged theaters in Trnava and Nitra in Nitra favor. Trnava Theatre is again released for amateurs. Established professional theater happened until 1974 when the city established a theater for children and youth. Under this name there were active until 1990, when it was renamed to Trnava Theatre. Since 2001, operates under the name John Palárik Theatre in Trnava. Since 2003, also in new areas of study.

Establishment of local theater in Trnava falls into the second wave of construction in Slovakia, which can be roughly dated to the decade between 1830-1840. After construction of the first municipal theaters in Bratislava and Kosice in the last third of the 18th century, its urban theaters since 1830 began to establish smaller cities such as Trnava, Levoca, Presov and Banska Bystrica. Lower financial basis for their construction, convenience located in the center and lower demands on their representational podobu could make in all cases, the specific nature of such structures, which were created as part of mixed-use buildings in conjunction with the catering or hotels. Frequently originated conversion of older buildings, possibly as their extension, which determined the location of their rowhouse in busy urban areas.

Theatre building in Trnava was built as a rear wing corner building of the hotel and catering industry in the main city square. Occupy the entire front wing of hotel hospitality, which at the time of construction of the theater received a further extension, - the second floor with a dance hall. The courtyard facade affixing it to the rear wing of the theater, the northern facade oriented to a side street, south of the courtyard. Such a solution determined the spatial resolution of his modest, occurring mainly in the absence of major entrances and narrow stairways. Entering the theater was originally granted in frontal and side facades. Both resulted in relatively cramped lobby - right side entrance, exit from the square through the passageways. Aspect had an elongated shape in the rear sector of terminated. After his district was dvíhali two rows of boxes and the upper gallery, supported by a subtle array columns. Its capacity was compared with similar theaters in smaller towns in Slovakia remarkably large to fit into it to 548 standing or seated spectators. Auditorium was decorated in Biedermeier style, the portal stage was the inscription "Aere MDCCCXXXI sociali" - gifts of citizenship 1831st Be painted stage curtain painted by the painter Lieder. [According to Garlic-Michalcová, Milena: foreign language theater in Trnava. 150th anniversary of Trnava Theatre, in: Slovak Theatre, Vol. 29, 1981, No. 1, p. 126-160, here p. 140]. Hall lit the tallow candles and gas lamps argandové.

The front facade seeking Square, as well as lateral facade bore initially sober Classic form. The main accent to the three floors front facade buttress formed axial, divided into the upper two floors high pilasters queues carrying the translation of a simple triangular tympanum. Translation of the tympanum was decorated with the inscription, referring to a period of builders: "Ist Hanc aeDeM Thale sacred senatVs aC popVLVs TIrnaVIensIs" - This stand was built Talia Municipality and population Trnava. (Year of 1831 gives the total capitalization value in Roman numerals). The basic scheme of the facade is visible even today, despite his treatment at the turn of the 19th and 20 century.

Lateral, axial 7-storey facade originally already organized system of window openings, each separated by high pilasters queues bearing width in the three axes of intermediate triangular tympanum. Top row of window openings should be a simple rectangular form, on the ground floor window openings are small, the width of the three semicircular central axis, moreover, emphasized smooth lining and rustications on the wall. Extreme axis input floors were reserved for entries, available in several grades and pointed brackets carried by a triangular roof.

The form of the two facades, internal layout and decoration has undergone over the course of the theater several modifications. Late 19 century façade decorated in art nouveau-Baroque style, initially received a triangular tympanum rounded form. Trinity rizalitových windows offered a new form of high, semi-finished window openings on the first floor and smaller on the second round. Prior to buttress was built to the first floor balcony. By connecting smaller rooms on the first floor and ballroom on the second, a new spacious hall, so called. Panonnia, decorated mirrors, wallpaper and moldings. Undergone a theater in this period more substantial transformation in unspecified time, however, were medium-sized box on the first floor converted into a balcony. (The building named balcony mention several earlier researchers, do not specify the exact year).

In 1948 they because of security reasons   the theater building was closed and its major rebuilding followed, lasting the whole 12 years. As part of her interiors have undergone a complete transformation, only original remaining external walls and staircases. The original wooden structure was replaced in terms of its reinforced concrete imitation, preserving the layout of boxes, balconies and galleries. Seats for spectators fell to 396th Stage is built up again with high povraziskom. Original smaller spaces in the front wing, serving mainly as shops, were combined into a single space foyer, follow-up through a staircase at a somewhat higher initial foyer. Input from the frontal facade secured three door openings, holes and interpretation of other inputs were converted to the stained glass windows and filled with figural motifs from painters Julius Joseph Bartek and dock. Into space on the ground floor foyer was added Thalia statue of Francis Štefunko. After the nationalization of church property of St. League Association. Adalbert, who was from the back of the theater building of its tract, has been adapting these spaces for the needs of theater background. Built here greenroom, warehouses, test hall and other facilities. The southern side of the stage landed a workshop. For the purposes of theater administration, the premises were adapted to an inn in southern part of the front wing and the southern areas of the side wings.

In eighty years, the look on the ground floor foyer of the new modified wood and textile wall coverings. In 1990 it was considered the extension of the theater in a westerly direction for a modern extension at the site of three existing smaller houses. The project has developed a pair of architects Márius Žitňanský and Miroslav Egyed Project of the Institute of Culture, the idea was not accepted.

Nowadays, it is the interior of the opera form reconstruction other entrance foyer, theater room and basement, which took place in 1999-2003. Initiated by the urgent need to exchange heating system and change the air. On this occasion occurred in the former boiler room in the basement to build a new studio theater, new central changing rooms and other required areas. The studio has made available a new staircase directly from the foyer, which has undergone minor changes, mostly just an aesthetic nature. The original stone tiles, stone tiles and wall art were left to finalize the windows, wood and textile wall coverings were replaced. Textile wall, however, because of better maintenance replace Red vinyl. Window openings are duplicated by adding the inner glass panels and windows were also profiled new sills, imitating the style Biedermeier - a stylish interior design of the original theater. There was also a buffet for the movement, originally situated at the side entrance vestibule on the south side of the foyer. Change over the theater hall itself, which received a new surface treatment of walls, columns, balconies and floors. Continuous parapet balconies should get instead of molded plastic sill Red vinyl wallpaper with decorative graphic pattern derived from the original biedermayerovského ornament, decoration but eventually sills merely applying the three intermediate gold belt with stucco ornament in the middle. Pillars of the balconies and walls were lined with light wooden wainscoting deep red color, which will be applied the same decorative elements such as on balconies. Originally, wooden theater seats replace upholstered chairs with metal frame. Hall received new lighting and stage of the portal has been added a modern variant of the original Latin name "AERE SOCIALE MDCCCXXXI.

            Jozef Palárik in Trnava is located in a building occupying a substantial part of a continuous urban block next to one of the main city square - the Trinitarian. Originally three wong building on the U-layout in the twentieth century has been extended for a further wing, enclosing the original disposition of the back side, creating a small inner courtyard. Adapting the house, originally belonging to the Society of St. Vojtech, the area theater added another wing, connecting the western side of the building povraziska. Main, east facade is oriented to the square, the side wings of the facade into two side streets or the courtyard. Less building, erected on the southern side of the main facade, as well as buildings, enclosing a rectangular city block at the rear to property outside the theater.

The front, east wing of the building underpass is divided into two parts, on the right are entrances to the dance hall upstairs. The left section is intended for the theater administration, as well as side, the southern wing of the building, connecting at right angles to the front. The northern side wing of the building is situated own a theater, on the west followed by component designed for theatrical performance. Among other things, it is situated in the premises greenroom, testing and storage. In the west wing, joining the mass of the south stage. The front facade is divided to eleven  rows of windows and entry holes on three floors. The width of the eighth to tenth window axis out of the shallow facade buttress, accentuated by the concave-convex-curved visor. Double continuous string courses separates massive floor, highlighted embossed lining and a high pedestal made of stone veneer from the upper two floors. Window and floor of the entrance holes are semicircular termination, each decorated with a smooth top keystone. In third position the window axis crossing is situated in the inner court, serving also as an input into the administrative part of the building, where the ticket office. The form also mimic other window openings on the right side of the passage. In all three axes buttress inputs are located in the foyer of the theater.

Higher operating through two floors smooth plaster with a soft subtle decoration. Rectangular relief breakdown between windows premises, extending vertically through the height of both floors of each other while connecting to a compact area. Rectangular windows on the second floor level  shields decorated with a concave-convex and rounded suprafenestry with plastic plant ornament. Window jambs with ears with suprafenestrami frame the profiled rails. Windows on the top floors have identical rectangular form, are less flashy decorated. Emphasize the panes with simple cornices and orthogonal caparisons suprafenestry with keystones in their midst. Suprafenestru together with the upper part of window frames architraves profiled bar, complete plant ornament. Nadokenné mantels with concave regions are unfolded to the intermediate part of the ledge. Windows in the last extremity, the time axis are bricked up. Formal and artistically different windows are in buttress.  Separate tracks, take the form of high, narrow, semi-finished windows, art nouveau related plant and keystone ornamentation with the upper range lying horizontally curved windows. Secession form bears a breakdown of window panes and termination lizénových belts in the form of female masks. The middle window is also crossing the small stone balcony, occupying the width of the central axis rizalitovej. Translation buttress strip is decorated with an inscription ozrejmujúcim identity of clients and the year of construction. Shield decorated with vegetal decoration embossed with a harp in the middle. Completing a significant element of the front facade and gabled roof.

Lateral facade retains its original appearance only partially. Different visual rendering it divides into three parts. In the first window width of two axes, corresponding to the width of the front of the building bears the basic breakdown of the front facade with an identical bosážovým stvárnením lower floors, skirting stone veneer and smooth rendering on two upper floors. Windows, however, are simpler in nature, where higher floors are two window openings bricked up. Ground broken pair of simple rectangular window openings, windows adorn the first floor and direct nadokenné panes and cornices with suprafenestrami caparisons. For windows on the top floor has been applied only below the windows with a simple rectangular shaped bracket and architraves. The second part, corresponding to the width of the light, maintain an identical amount, breakdown of string courses on the ground floor and two floors above. Ground is not bosážového breakdown, only to preserve the socle zone with stone tiles. Form the said part of the side facade is significantly affected by subsequent interventions. Remained only slightly protruding central buttress, structured high pilasters queues absent however, completing the tympanum. Part of the buttress at ground floor is additionally created a side entrance to the theater hall, open to several levels. From the exception of two simple window openings above each axis in the far part of the facade remained appointed without window openings. The last part of the side facade of the stage corresponds to the width and bear form after post-treatment stage in the 50's. Is no sharp division, with the exception of the intermediate string courses between ground floor and higher floors.

In side the theater facade from the west added another two-storey building, used for theatrical background. Its facade, facing the side street is divided by two rows of simple rectangular window and door openings (six on the top floor, four windows and two doors at the bottom) and a small rectangular floor plan dormers at second floor in the first window width axis. Dormers is profiled on consoles at the same time creates a canopy above the side entrance to the building.

Entrance foyer is accessed via a doorway through three inputs from the Trinity Square. It lies on two different height levels, connected by stairs. The front, lower level is partly used as a cafeteria, is located here and stairway to the basement, where is located the central dressing room and studio. Higher level allows direct entry into the pit light or a pair of output side spiral staircase to the first floor. Located there are restrooms. Wall coverings are working partly with a stone facing a dark gray color, partly with wood paneling rose to wine rose color. Cladding new building additions, such as stair to the basement wall or buffet counter, as well as older, stair treads to a higher level foyer, are of red granite tiles. The lining is applied up to four fifths of the height of the walls, along the remainder of the ceiling is plastered and painted white. Stone tile on the floor is tuned in pale and dark gray shades, at a lower level foyer décor creating a square.

A theater has a rectangular plan with polkruhovitým end of term. After the circuit point of view, are two rows of balconies, carried by subtle small pilliersi. The side wings on the first floor balcony are reserved for the lodge. A pair of boxes was applied at the ground floor, in front before proscenium. Curve balcony parapets is not identical, concave curvature of the highest balcony parapet contradicts convex bulging middle parts of the balcony parapet on the first floor. Color tuning in terms works similarly to combination vinaceous foyer with wooden wall and the seat cushions and gray colors and pilierikov balcony parapets. Festive character adds parapet subdivision three parallel lines of gold and gold railings. Lines are interrupted only in the middle of the window sills, where at the first floor of the plant applied relief decoration in the middle of the harp - the decor of the same decoration rizalitového gable front facade. Parapet on the second floor is decorated theme wreaths. The historical origin of the term also refers to a form of lamps balcony pilierikov, inducing the impression of the head and also a modern imitation of the original inscription above the portal stage.

At the level of the first floor of the foyer there are two halls. More mirror, serving initially as a dance hall Pannonia, and less smoking room initially be accessed from the foyer on the first floor and the time are also linked to one another. Mirror Hall got its name after the Venetian mirror that hangs on its walls. The walls are decorated with monochrome system areas pale yellow in color on a gray background, flanked by acanthus fine decor. Of two-thirds up the walls running string courses on the longer sides of the hall is also applied to the breakdown of the pillars of Art Nouveau figural decoration. Plinth area is lined with wooden coffered paneling. Top of the wall terminating continuous cornice, on which rests the rounding form a flat ceiling, lined the perimeter of embossed zones and corners round target. Hall lit by five crystal chandeliers, planted in circular targets in the corners and center of the ceiling. The middle target is additionally decorated with a decorative grille with plant decoration and delicate stucco wall around the outer circumference of the target. In the back of the hall is a small balcony with a convex-concave parapetom.Malá triple room is designed in a modern style with simple white walls and modern paint neon lamps. Both rooms, however, combines the same décor wooden mosaic floors. Thanks to the wide dividing door or curtain, can be used independently and together. In the premises of the former boiler room in the basement in 2003 was remaded on to small studio audience. Originally semicircular space below the auditorium theater hall was appropriately used to establish a small amphitheatrical light with a narrow elevated stage and rounded proscéniom, which is used as a scene. It is accessible by stairs from the lobby downstairs, through a central closet space. 






Author: Viera Dlhánová

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