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National Theatre

Josef Zítek, Josef Schulz

history of the theatresupplementtechnical dataHistoric equipment

Important events

(detail)1844 | Beginnings of the project

There appeared the first intention of Czech leaders to establish an association for construction of a Czech theatre, the leading figure was František Ladislav Rieger.


(detail)1850 | Foundation of the organization
The company called "The Society for the Establishment of a Czech National Theatre in Prague" was founded . František Palacký was elected as its chairman .
(detail)1854 | Architectural competition
Proclamation of the first architectural competition was made public, however, none of the designs obtained the first prize, albeit the design by Frantz Fröhlich was recommended to implementation. Due to the ambiguous acceptance and financial complications, the construction had not been carried out.
(detail)1861 | Decision about construction of the Provisional Theatre
František Ladislav Rieger enforced establishment of the Provisional Theater in the Regional Commission. The project was assigned to architect Ignác Vojtěch Ullmann and was carried out in 1862.
(detail)1862 | 2nd architectural competition
A confined competition, to which were summoned architects Antonín Barvitius, Heřman Bergmann, Josef Hlávka, Josef Niklas, Jan Novotný, Karel Řivnáč and I. V. Ullmann, terminated unsuccessfully.
(detail)1866 | Design of the theatre
The Building Commission of the Society for the Establishment of Czech National Theatre applied for a design from architect Josef Zítek, eventually approved by an independent jury reference by Viennese architects Eduard van der Nüll and August Siccard von Siccardsburg. The project was ratified in the same year by the general assembly of the Society.
(detail)11. 6. 1881 | Opening ceremony
Opening ceremony with the participation of the crown Prince Rudolf with the performance of Libuše by Bedřich Smetana.
(detail)12. 8. 1881 | Fire

(detail)1882 | New Project
Disagreements between Josef Zítek and the Building Commission of the Society led to assignment of Josef Schulz to work out the project of the reparation.
(detail)18.11.1883 | opening
The reconstruction was successfully completed on the 18th of November 1883 and permanent theatre operation was initiated.
(detail)1911 | Amendment of the exterior decoration
Between 1910 – 1911, the corner pylons were decorated by three-horse chariot statue according to the design by Bohuslav Schnirch and was manufactured by sculptors Emil Hallmann, Stanislav Rous and Ladislav Šaloun.
(detail)1925 | Fire curtain
The installation of fire curtain , whose design was made by František Kysela.
(detail)1983 | Reconstruction of the building
Completion of the reconstruction that was taking place since 1977 according to the design by Zdeněk Vávra.

People

Josef Zítek |main architect
(detail)Josef Schulz |main architect

He belongs among the most known architects of the Czech Neo Renaissance architecture. He was a co-worker and continuator of J. Zítek by building the Rudolfinum and completion of the National Theatre after the fire. His man work – the National Museum – was build according to Viennese museums and the Louvre in Paris as a truly representative (although not very functional) national monument. He topped his work off with construction of the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague. He was a versatile architect and designer, although rather not much original in comparison with the talent of Zítek. However, his main buildings are considered the showpieces of Czech architecture, on which famous sculptors and painters worked as well – the so called generation of the National Theatre. As an outstanding pedagogue, he influenced the entire generation of his disciples.

Text: ing arch Kamil Dvořák, DrSc, in: Architekti v českých zemích (Prostor – AD)

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(detail)Zdeněk Vávra |architect

He worked in Státní ústav pro rekonstrukci památkových měst a objektů (State institute for reconstruction of memorial cities and constructions) throughout his life. He realized theatre in Český Těšín with J. Černohorský in 1960. He was working on design studies for National Theatre reconstruction. Afterwards he led the realization team.  Later he worked on the reconstruction of the South Bohemia Theatre. 

Source: www.cka.cc/

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(detail)Karel Prager |architect

The initial phase of his work was still influenced by the Socialist Realism. The interest in new world wide tendencies in building led him towards patterns of late Functionalism ( the so called International Style), especially to American realizations by the SOM and Miese van der Rohe. Prager was the first one, who used hanging glass walls on the facades in an aluminium grid as in the Institute of macromolecular chemistry ČSAV. He was also discovering and designing new building constructions and materials, often even untested before (the building of the Federal Assembly) for his other buildings. The architecture of his pieces is usually  innovative, but sometimes controversial as for instance the New Stage of the National Theatre).

Text: ing arch Kamil Dvořák, DrSc, in: Architekti v českých zemích (Prostor – AD)

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(detail)Bohuslav Fuchs |architect

One of the leading representatives of Czech Functionalism ,of  the so called Brno architectural school. With wide sense for harmony between new building and the environment, he helped to create a modern city from Brno.

Source: Archiweb

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Antonín Barvitius |architect

(detail)Josef Niklas |architect - participant of the competition

An architect of Czech revival architecture. He was a student of Karl Wiesenfeld at the Prague Polytechnic Institute, then he was  a trainee  by Heinrich J. Frenzel in Prague and Leopold Mayer in Vienna. He made a study tour through Germany, France and Italy. He became an assistant of Bernhard Grueber at the Prague Polytechnic Institute in 1849 and was appointed a teacher of drawing and building at K.K high school in Prague. He applied for habilitation (the qualification for teaching) of practical building teaching at the  Prague Polytechnic Institute and in 1864, he obtained  professorship at the department of civil engineering for Czech language. He took over a department  in the Czech part of Prague Polytechnic Institute that had been established shortly before where he remained until his death (he was a rector here between 1873–74). Together with F. X. Šanda, he published Joendl’s advice on building  (1862) and Architectural styles from the oldest times until present(1865). He is an author of many ecclesiastical Neo-Gothic and Neo-Renaissance municipal buildings in Bohemia. Apart of participation in the reconstruction of the Estate Theatre, he realized the wooden New Town Theatre (1858) and Švanda’s Arena Theatre in Pštroska (1869), he participated in competition for a national theatre (1866) and he elaborated the project of the German Theatre in Pilsen.

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(detail)Ignác Vojtěch Ullmann |architect - participant of the competition

A Czech architect, one of the early pioneers of the Czech Renaissance revival architecture. His work was inspired by the north Italian Late Renaissance palaces and first Renaissance revival buildings in Vienna. The most important of his works are  Palác Lažanských or the building of contemporary Akademie věd České republiky .

Source: Wikipedia

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Franz Fröhlich |architect - participant of the competition
Josef Hlávka |architect - participant of the competition
(detail)Josef Tulka |painter

Czech painter. One of the group of so called Generation of the National Theater.

Source:


(detail)Vojtěch Hynais |painter

Czech painter. One of the group of  so called Generation of the National Theater.

Source:


(detail)Jan Štursa |sculptor

One of the founders of the Czech modern sculpture. At first, he was influenced by Art Nouveau symbolisms, but later he inclined to sensual approach of depicting a female body. He reacted in his work to experiences from the front lines. The after war relief The NINERA player (1919) heralded the aesthetics of Civilism. He created mainly portraits in the last years of his life.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Štursa

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(detail)Antonín Wagner |sculptor

Czech sculptor living in Vienna since 1857. He is significant as an author of decorative sculptures of massive expression and distinct pose (sculptures for parliament, Burgtheater, Hofburg gate –all in Vienna). He participated on decorating of National Theatre in Prague /sculptures of Lumír and Záboj, groups  Opera a Drama) and National Museum in Prague, sculpture Čechie, and front façade reliefs.

Source:


(detail)Karel Sladkovský |Commissioned by

Czech politician.He is considered one of the leading figures in Czech National revival movement. One of the founders and chairman of Young Czech party , inclining both to nationalism and liberalism.

Source:


History

One cannot merely view the construction as well as the building of the Czech National Theatre in an isolated fashion or as merely the need to establish a suitable theatre structure for the Czech public. One must also keep in mind the wider period context as an ideological symbol of the renewal of Czech culture as well as statehood.

The initial activity, moving toward concrete attempts to construct the Czech National Theatre in Prague, can be traced back to the year 1844 when a group of influential, patriotic thinking intellectuals and members of the aristocracy under the leadership of  František Ladislav Rieger came out with a plan to establish a joint stock company with the purpose of establishing a Czech theatre stage as a  alternative version of the Estates Theatre which would almost exclusively present plays in the German language.

An important turning point for the further development of the National Revival process was the year 1850 with the formation of a unified platform in the shape of The Society for the Establishment of a Czech National Theatre in Prague which at its first meeting elected František Palacký as its first chairman on the 12th of September.

The choice of an appropriate plot of land became a key factor for the future appearance of the theatre. Possible adaptations to several sacral structures secularized during the reforms of Emperor Joseph first came into consideration as well as the idea of adapting the theatre in Kotce. Nevertheless, there was an evident interest in obtaining a still as yet unbuilt on locality which would allow for the construction of a monumentally conceived free standing building. There was speculation regarding locations on the Old Town Square, Charles Square or the lower part of Wenceslas Square or even a spot on the current Republic Square. The first projects came about with Johann Heinrich Frenzl preparing a design for a theatre building on Wenceslas Square not far from Můstek and Jan Novotný working on situating the theatre in close proximity to Powder Gate.

Finally, the Society accepted an offer in the year 1852 to purchase a, less than optimal from the architectural perspective, plot of land at the far end of Ferdinand street (today's Národní) street in proximity to the new chain bridge (from the years 1839-41) where the building of the former salt works was located. Apart from financial reasons, the criteria involving placing the theatre in proximity to other renowned structures was of  importance, these consisting of the chain bridge itself, as well as the planned construction of the so-called Franciscea, a group of buildings uniting both museum and society activities, initiated by František Palacký. Last but not least, the location on the banks of the river was of importance in terms of long-distance views, providing a visual and ideological connection with the dominant feature of the Prague Castle.

In the meantime, the original construction programme began to swell in size. At the present time, a building with a similar extent of cultural services would be referred to as a multi-cultural centre. The requirements included, apart from the theatre operations, a restaurant or café, a concert hall and additional social salons. There is an obvious parallel here with the more recent Obecní dům (Municipal House) by the architects Polívka and Balšánek. Particularly in this phase of preparations a conscious aim at providing a dignified home for Czech social life emerged which at the same time served as an inspiration for increased activity. Of particular interest was also the assumed capacity of the theatre which was ambitiously established at  2,500 seats this being a figure which had to be repeatedly decreased due to pressure from practical considerations. The need for provision of a certain financial return to the investments was also clearly apparent in the complicated project.

The approval process for such a widely ambitious programme, understandably, dragged out for a period of two years with the consequent decision on the part of the Prague office of the governor only reaching approval in a trimmed version, that is the construction of only the theatre itself. This decree was soon followed by the declaration of an architectural competition on the 26th of March 1854. The low interest on the part of participating architects was somewhat surprising, possibly due to discouragement because of the difficulty of the commission on the problematic plot of land as well as the limited budget. Only seven designs arrived from which the jury refused to grant a first prize, but instead only divided up three rewards. The work of the Viennese architect  Franz Fröhlich was recommended for realization as the best design. Fröhlich was inspired by the Gottfried Semper Opera in Dresden with the volume of the structure divided up in accordance with the functional perspective in such a fashion that it actually influenced the internal arrangement as well, consequently optimally succeeding in overcoming the problems arising from the irregular character of the building plot. Nevertheless, the realization continued to be delayed due to financial problems connected with the purchase of the land itself as well as due to certain resistance to Fröhlich's project which failed to resonate with the expectations of local circles due to its progressive architectural design.

With the vision of the construction of the theatre fading, F. L. Rieger revived the initiative when in the year 1861 he was able to politicize the entire affair through introducing the idea of establishing a Provisional Theatre at the Regional Commission. The task was consequently assigned to the architect Ignác Vojtěch Ullmann who at that time was carrying out the building of Czech Savings Bank (1858-72) on the opposite side of the street and had completed the Church of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in Karlín after Karel Rössner  (1854-1863). The “Provisional” Theatre was confirmed in the architectural design as well with the pragmatically formulated requirement that the volume of the structure could be incorporated in the future as part of the National Theatre as the first construction stage. The modest sized theatre building with a capacity for almost 1,000 people, situated on part of the plot of land at a further distance from Ferdinand street, was constructed over a fairly rapid time over the course of the year 1862. Another limited competition took place that same year with an invited competition involving the architects Antonín Barvitius, Heřman Bergmann, Josef Hlávka, Josef Niklas, Jan Novotný, Karel Řivnáč and I. V. Ullmann. The attempts, however, on the part of the commissioners culminated in failure when the number of members of the commission exceeded the figure of the submitted designs (two in all). This lack of success was influenced by the fact that no binding programme has been established and the victorious project was supposed to define the actual ideal of the National Theatre.

Personnel changes in the Society for the Establishment of a Czech National Theatre in Prague, when Karel Sladkovský from the Young Czech Party replaced F. L. Riegr in the leadership in the year 1865, meant for a new impulse for reviving the ideas regarding the construction of the definitive building for the National Theatre. Sladkovský viewed the project as an appropriate consolidation tool for the cultural and political establishment of the Czech nation and began to intensify fund raising activities.

After two unsuccessful competitions, the Building Commission of the Society for the Establishment of a Czech National Theatre made a request in the year 1866 that only one architect, Josef Zítek, work on the project. Zítek had just received international renown for the construction of the court museum in Weimar (1863-1868) and by coincidence had only several months earlier, in December of the year 1865, settled in Prague. These achievements in Germany proved to be a key factor as to why he was chosen in Prague. The representatives of the Society turned to Zítek directly, which of course resulted in dissatisfaction among their colleagues  and several other architects consequently submitted their designs – Josef Niklas, Ignác V. Ullmann and another figure, still unknown at the present time. Despite the fact that the competition had not been advertised this time, a specialised decision from foreign experts was supposed to serve as a guarantee of a just decision. Two prominent Viennese architects  Eduard van der Nüll and August Siccard von Siccardsburg, the authors of the opera in Vienna and in whose office Zítek had been earlier employed,  were called upon for the task of independent jury members. The specialised experts unanimously supported Zítek's project. Niklas and Ullmann submitted their contributions within the time deadline on the 18th of August 1866, while in contrast Zítek's design was viewed at the architect's office personally by members of the Society. The projects were consequently exhibited at the Old Town Hall and the testimonies of the Viennese architects were printed in full in the journal Národní listy.

Zítek's project was approved by the general assembly of the Society on the 11th of November 1866 after positive acceptance on the part of public opinion. The construction work was begun with the demolishing of the old salt works on the 16th of September 1867 and the ceremonial placing of the foundation stone which took place on the 16th of May of the following year with the participation of the patriotic thinking elite. The first ceremonial performance of the opera Libuše by Bedřich Smetana, in the as yet incomplete building, took place with the participation of Crown Prince Rudolf on the 11th of June 1881. After twelve performances, the culminating work was renewed during the summer months with the beginning of permanent theatre operations scheduled for the 11th of September of that year. A destructive fire, however, struck the building on the 12th of August and the preparations for the imminent opening of the theatre were instantly dashed to pieces.

After the critical reactions which descended upon Zítek's work after the flames died down, as well as after prolonged negotiations between the Building Commission of the Society and the architect and finally after the Society refused to accept Zítek's proposal for the renovation of the theatre on the 10th of February 1882, the author in March 1882 refused to further participate on the realization of the reconstruction and the modification adaptations. The project for the reconstruction was consequently assigned to the a Professor at the Technical University and colleague of  Zítek, Josef Schulz who by the 9th of May 1882 had prepared a project for the repairs to the theatre. The reconstruction was successfully completed on the 18th of November 1883 and the permanent theatre season was initiated. After this tragic double beginning only minor adaptations had to be carried out over the following decades. In the years 1910-1911 trigas (teams of three horses) were placed onto the corner pylons according to a design by Bohuslav Schnirch who died in the year 1901 and consequently the sculptors Emil Hallmann, Stanislav Rous and Ladislav Šaloun actually carried out the work. A new, fire curtain was added to the interior in the year 1925 whose design was created by František Kysela who often worked with architects in designing the decorative design of the interiors of buildings. 

The Ministry of Public Work announced an architectural-urban planning competition in the year 1922 at the impulse of the Ministry of Schooling and National Education aimed at finding an optimal plot of land for the construction of a new Czech theatre in Prague and at the same time acquire a guideline for designing the next project. Two authorial teams consequently worked on the idea of connecting this conceived new structure up with the building of the National Theatre on Národní street. These consisted of two trios of colleagues Ladislav Machoň, Alois Kubíček and Karel Pecánek as well as Jaroslav Stránský, Josef Šlégl and Karel Polívka. In the end neither of the designs in the given locale were approved by the jury.

Three architectural competitions for the design of the space between the National Theatre and the Ursuline Abbey were gradually announced in the second half of the 20th century, these being in the years 1958, 1962 and 1964. A group under the leadership of the architect Bohuslav Fuchs was victorious in both competitions in the 1960s. It was only, however, in the year 1973 that a study for the urban planning-architectural design for the space between the existing building of the National Theatre and the grounds of the Ursuline Abbey was finally officially awarded.  The actual reconstruction work to the National Theatre took place over the years 1977-1983 according to a project by the architect Zdeněk Vávra. The authors of the collection of new structures for the grounds of the National Theatre as well as the annex of the New Stage were members of the team of  Pavel Kupka (SÚRPMO) and consequently Karel Prager.

 

Josef Zítek dealt in his project in optimal fashion with the main obstacles of the inappropriate building plot in the year 1866 while in contrast Ullmann and Niklas only pointed out the numerous weak points both in terms of the layout arrangement as well as from the perspective of the chosen architectural style which represented an important interpretive element for every public structure at the time of Historicism.  In terms of style, Zítek was influenced by the model of North Italian late Renaissance architecture with the majestic effect of the National Theatre enhanced by rich application of sculptural work on the exterior.

The irregular features of the construction site were skilfully disguised by Zítek through his sensitive treatment of the volumes and formation of the monumental façades facing out on Národní třída street. The main entrance consists of the volume of the central two-storey, five-windowed portico with an external entrance staircase thus achieving an elevation of the ground floor above the street level. The longitudinal axis is here imperceptibly articulated in such a manner so as to turn the street front perpendicular to Národní třída street, while in contrast the author adhered to the asymmetrical shape of the land for the the space of the auditorium. He additionally added massive pylons with U-stairways to the side areas which on the one hand served to solve the vertical communication in the interior as well as sensitively balancing the proportions of the façade.

In terms of height the building is unified with the city panorama through its employment of a sculptured cornice with balustrades which respected the given level of the main cornice of the Provisional Theatre. The construction volume of the actual four-sided cupola on a rectangular floor plan culminates above the space of the stage and auditorium, monumentalizing the entire volume through its intensification to the level of the spires of the Prague churches. The original Provisional Theatre, transformed and incorporated  into the consequent construction volume according to the project by Schulz, connects up to this structure at a further depth of the land. The whole culminates on the southern side of the construction site with the body of the new administrative structure on the site of the former apartment building of Dr. Polák.

The exterior cladding of Zítek's building is made up of exposed sandstone masonry.  The ground floor belt is encircled with articulated bossage. The long, eleven-windowed western façade, facing out over the river, is proportionally balanced with articulation through the employment of two side three-angled bays, with the left further extended by the volume of the coach entrance way held up by arcade arches with a balcony connected up on the level of the first floor. The tops of the bays are decorated with a sculptural group of Musical Art and Dramatic Art by Antonín Wagner. The opposite eastern façade, facing out on the narrow Divadelní street, employs a smaller scale and is considerably more modest in terms of its décor, this being given by the city planning situation at the time of the construction of the theatre.

The composition of the interiors came about in a struggle with the dictates of the high capacity. As a result Zítek was forced to reduce the size of certain service corridors as well as technical operations and first and foremost decrease the number of seats from the initial requested 2,500 down to the eventual 1,800. During reconstruction after the fire Josef Schulz decided on even more radical limitations to the number of audience members to a mere 1,380. The auditorium is composed of a somewhat horseshoe-shaped ground plan with a slightly rising parterre with the rows of seats shaped in mild curves between the side loges; the parterre ended up until the middle of the 20th century with an area for standing room. Two balconies are on the higher levels once again divided into side loges with the central part supplementing the amphitheatre style curved seats. Two ceremonial loges opposite one another are situated on the side axes of the first balconey, the right originally royal and the second for the president. The proscenium loge culminates in the grand drapery of the baldachin framed on the whole with figures of glazed caryatids. The somewhat simple treatment is distinguished by the opposite double loge. Two particularly steep galleries are consequently above the balconies, which also originally culminated in standing room.

The sunken orchestra pit is the transition point between the audience and the action on the stage. The actual space of the stage is arranged in a longitudinal fashion. The current appearance of the stage border came about through mutual co-operation between Josef Schulz and Bohuslav Schnirch. The decorative bevelled jambs with ornamental reliefs and theatre masks culminates in a triangular tympanum containing Neo-Classical sculptural work surrounding a central figure, enthroned Czech. The frieze above the tympanum has the inscription “NÁROD SOBĚ” (Nation Unite) supplemented by the coats-of-arms of the Czech lands.

J. Schulz only slightly adapted Zítek's original space arrangement apart from the already mentioned decrease in capacity, the shifting of the proscenium walls further south and an increase to the height of the auditorium ceiling under the newly installed steel lattice construction of the roof which replaced the earlier wooden one.  He was also forced to increase the overall number of emergency exits due to stricter fire regulations and replace the gas lighting with a safer electric variation. The visibility of the stage was also optimalized by reducing the balcony belts.

The rich artistic décor is an essential aspect of the renown of the National Theatre building. The group of painters and sculptors who contributed to the decoration of the theatre interiors and exteriors were known as the so-called National Theatre generation, this being not only due to their authorial contribution to the artistic appearance of the theatre building, but also because of the influence which these artists consequently had on the gradually emerging Czech cultural scene of the second half of the 19th century.

The curtain is undoubtedly the most impressive element of the theatre décor. Proof of its importance is the fact that the National Theatre announced an independent competition for its appearance in the year 1879, the winner of which was the design by František Ženíšek. The actual realization was carried out, however, by the Viennese company Brioschi and Burghardt in co-operation with the scene painter Kautský. Neither the author nor the members of the jury were, however, satisfied with the consequent result. Nevertheless, this original work came about in situ at the time of the fire in the theatre in the year 1881. The author of the second curtain was Vojtěch Hynais who undertook the task as the depiction of the ideal which accompanied the construction of the building itself, that is the motto “Národ sobě”. The ceiling of the auditorium is decorated with eight radically arranged paintings by František Ženíšek depicting allegories of art: Lyric, Epic, Mime, Sculpture, Architecture, Painting and Music. The author of the decorative sculptural décor of the auditorium was Bohuslav Schnirch.

The celebratory character of the artistic artefacts is first and foremost represented by the large collection of portrait busts of leading figures from Czech history and culture. The first part is located immediately in the entrance vestibule and in the adjoining connecting corridor. Here one can view, for example, sculptural portraits of Ema Destinnová (Bohumil Kafka) or Alois Jirásek (Jan Štursa). The basement space of the cloak rooms contains portraits of both architects of the consequent appearance of the National Theatre – Josef Zítek (Marta Jirásková-Havlíčková) and Josef Schulz (Josef Václav Myslbek). The main foyer on the first floor is also decorated along the circumference by busts of famous figures while of particular interest in the central part of the ceiling is Ženíšek's triptych of the Golden Age of Art, The Decline of Art and the Resurrection of Art as well as the cycle Nation by Mikoláš Aleš in the lunettes. The final unified collection of portrait busts is exhibited in the small foyer of the first gallery. The presidential stairway, originally the royal tract, is decorated with wall paintings by  Vojtěch Hynais with the themes of Peace, an Allegory of the Czech Lands and History.  Julius Mařák was the author of the collection of nine paintings on the themes of mountains and hills with mythological as well as historical connotations, designated for the antechamber of the royal loge. Václav Brožík created a canvas on the theme of the royal families which ruled in the Czech Kingdom for the decoration of the men's salon: the Přemyslids, Luxembourgs and the Hapsburgs. The frescos in the northern loges of the theatre were created by Josef Tulka.

 

Archive sources:

Archiv Národního divadla:  Architektonická studie dostavby okolí Národního divadla v Praze. Hlavní projektant urbanisticko-architektonické studie: Pavel Kupka SÚRPMO, autoři: P. Kupka, B. Blažek, J. Hrdličková, M. Lierová. Prosinec 1973.

-  Rekonstrukce Národního divadla a dostavba jeho okolí. Kolektiv autorů-účastníků výstavby. Listopad 1981.

-  Národní divadlo v Praze. Rekonstrukce historické budovy. Fotodokumentace stavu po rekonstrukci. Foto Jiří Binko. Svazek 1-14. 1983-84.

Archiv Odboru výstavby, Městská část Praha 1, čp. 233

Literature:

-  Hof, Karel Vít: Dějiny velkého Národního divadla v Praze. Praha 1868.

-  Šubert, František Adolf: Národní divadlo v Praze. Dějiny jeho i stavba dokončená. Praha 1881.

-  Šubert, František Adolf: Průvodce po Národním divadle. Praha 1884.

-  Šubert, František Adolf: Královské české země a Národní divadlo v Praze. Praha 1892.

-  Harlas, František Xaver: Sochařství a stavitelství. Praha 1911, s. 163-165.

-  Janák, Pavel: Nové trigy na Národním divadle, Styl III, 1911, č. 1, příl. Kronika, s. 20-21.

-  Fanta, Josef: Stavební bouda Národního divadla v Praze, Architektonický obzor XIII, 1914, s. 21-50.

-  Bílý, František: Morava a Národní divadlo v Praze, Zlatá Praha XXXV,1918, s. 394-398.

-  Engelmüller, Karel: Národ sobě, Zlatá Praha XXXV,1918, s. 386-391.

-  Heller, Servác: Ze vzpomínek založení Národního divadla, Zlatá Praha XXXV, 1918, s. 398-399.

-  Herrmann, Ignát: Národní divadlo a Neruda, Zlatá Praha XXXV,1918, s. 404.

-  Macek, Antonín: Národní divadlo jako dílo výtvarné, Zlatá Praha XXXV,1918, s. 405-408.

-  Štech, Václav Vilém: Jubileum Národního divadla, Umění I, 1918-21, s. 88-92.

-  Matějček, Antonín& Wirth, Zdeněk: Česká architektura 1800-1920. Praha 1922, s. 36-40.

-  Kubíček, Alois: Josef Zítek, Styl V (X) 1924, s. 129-135.

-  Žákavec, František: Josef Zítek, Styl V (X) 1924, s. 135-139.

-  Teige, Karel: Moderní architektura v Československu, Praha 1930, s. 19-25.

-  Janák, Pavel: Josef Zítek, budovatel Národního divadla, Lidové noviny 40, 1932, č. 170 (3. 4.), s. 9.

-  Kubíček, Alois: Architekt Josef Zítek, Umění V, 1932, s. 391-420.

-  Bartoš, Jan: Národní divadlo a jeho budovatelé. Praha 1933.

-  Štech, Václav Vilém: O Zlaté kapličce. Praha 1933.

-  Wirth, Zdeněk: Průvodce po Národním divadle. Praha 1933.

-  Bartoš, Jan: Budování Národního divadla. Legenda a skutečnost. Praha 1934.

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-  Žákavec, František: Chrám znovuzrození. O budovatelích a budově Národního divadla v Praze. Praha 1938.

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Tags: Austria-Hungary, Neo-Renaissance, Belle Époque, detached building, prestige building

 

Author: Vendula Hnídková

Translator: David Livingstone

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