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The State Opera Banská Bystrica

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(detail)1930 | construction


Emil Belluš |architect


Banská Bystrica addressed the idea to build a theater with redoubt since early 20 century. There is an issue that became especially after the fire of the old town theater in 1908, which led city council to negotiate the status of the new building. Over the next four years, the issue of placing the house because of the proposed nine-ers m

"Years pass by, everyone says and feels that in Banska Bystrica, only one mistake: the room charge for pet sitting, therefore Theatre /: cinema: /, public library, the proper room for dancing and concerts." - This statement burgomaster Mining Bystrica in 1921 vystihovalo situation in which the Banská Bystrica located since 1908, when the theater burned down the old city hall in the yard. [Draft in the National House Affairs, wrote Julius Csesznák, mayor, 11.22.1921, document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch]. The town had several times tried to replace the damaged building a new theater, but plans foiled "World War II and after the war messed up relationships as well as economic policy." [Lift the minutes of the representative council of Banská Bystrica, which vydržiavalo on 3 June 1927, p. 3, State Archives in Banská Bystrica - Banska Bystrica branch].

Even before the devastating fires of the old theater 8th November 1908, the city council dealt with plans to replace it due to the defective condition of the new building. However, this should have been put together with the redoubt, because then, as a former Banská Bystrica savings bank at the end of the 19th century had its "entertainment porch" [The proposal of the House in matters of national, written by Julius Csesznák, mayor, 22.11.1921, document stored in the Record in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch] change for its purposes, the city also lacked a dance hall. In 1902 the city had been available and plans for new Reduta (the theater), created by local architect Adolf Holeschom. To the extent it was the City Council are satisfied with their form and considered whether they are used, however, mention the source or researchers. Selection followed a long period of building land, which four years did not lead to satisfactory results. Only when the Minister of Agriculture gave the city for the theater building and land at the end of Redoute's former Mining Association, the preparatory work to move forward. In 1912, invited bids for theater and Reduta, which occurred in 30 proposals. The first prize went to a famous architect István Budapest Medgyaszay. Already referred to the First World War, however, prevent the position of theater.

After the war, the idea to build a new theater ceased to exist, the intention of Redoute multifunctional building with the theater, however, replace the idea of the National House. "Two years was again raised this question, now under the name" National Home ". - Julius Csesznák mayor held in 1921. [Draft in the National House Affairs, wrote Julius Csesznák, mayor, 11.22.1921, document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch]. Similarly, wrote about two years later, Minister of Economy A. Mayor Hanzlík: "But now, when the centrally located town of Banska Bystrica, Slovakia, the cultural center determines can not be satisfied with a single theater, but we must build a" National Home ", which due to its great importance should be najmonumentálnejšia building that already with its location, with dimensions indicating that represents a decent thing Slovak national culture. "[Letter from Minister of Agriculture from Mayor A. Hanzlík, 15 December 1923, State Archives in Banská Bystrica - Banska Bystrica branch] in unspecified period, however, probably until after the war, town bought two houses on the Main Square, which intended to rebuild the theater, cinema, library, concert hall of the hotel, restaurants and cafes . [Draft in the National House Affairs, wrote Julius Csesznák, mayor, 11.22.1921, document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch]. This intention however, the city failed to implement. (Reasons for the historical sources do not). Instead, they re-sell both houses and received funding from the construction of new buildings to pay the National House.

City is at that time again lacked land for the construction of buildings. Donating land forest treasury, which the city acquired before the war, was subject to the requirement that the construction must occur within two years. Since both of the above mentioned reasons can not happen, the city is entitled to it anymore. Several years of negotiations with forest management and agriculture minister is then led in 1923 to sell the forest land in the National treasury street for a symbolic price of the city. A year later, however, mesta Administrative Committee noted that the purchased land for the construction of the National House is too small and therefore at its meeting on 1 concluded in April 1924 to require the sale of the forestry directorate said the rest of the amount of land, extending to the river Hron. His gradual redemption occurred between 1925 and 1926. Parts of the building land is acquired and the purchase amount from the private garden owners.

The next step for the position was the creation of the National House Building Program. Even in 1921 established a building committee a new building panel which will be compiling the deal. In its statement reads: "DLA our opinion, this room of cultural significance to us vtenčas completely lacking, such as: theater, hall, public library and reading room, further room of a commercial nature: as restaurants, cafes, hotel, cinema, to fill vyšeuvedené cultural sums National House, but also enable us to this on a commercial basis to draw. "[The Commission proposal seconded by the Administrative Committee on prihotoveniu otázky erection of the National House, dated 01/10/1922, document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch] . The Commission has made proposals building program, which included among others theater hall with consideration for approx. 600 spectators, and although the parterre 350-400 seats, 120-150 seats in the balcony and gallery of 100 seats. In doing so the opportunity was presented as a combination of the bed with balcony. Stage should occupy 150 m2 and include back stage and proscenium. Among the side room to the theater is appropriate to designate the storage and dressing room, one dressing room should also serve as a teaching room, further room for the property manager, a tailor, and office. Hall, serving for dance parties and concerts, occupying an area of 300 m2, should also include a balcony or on one box, or on multiple pages. Among other requirements, states set up cafes and restaurants "in conjunction with a convenient vestibule to the social, dance, festivities and occasions, along with the porch could be spent on about 1,000 people, hotel with approx. 32 rooms for 1 or 2 people, a cinema with aspect to the bed for approx. 500 visitors and the public library. The Commission also addressed the question of making possible the construction cost of the functions of the theater, and cinema hall in a single room, but was rejected on the grounds that: "The theater, hall, cinema, each of those amounts is responsible for the intended special requirements to compare, connect the completely impossible and would only sustained excellence of the object. This is just the exposure of a cultural building, which is not only the current relationship of an act, but also the future to be answered. "

As is evident, the initial idea of the scope of services offered and the size of the building were very spectacular. Over the preparatory work, particularly by creating construction budget, but many of the initial ideas and showed exaggerated for financial ratios mesta exorbitant. Already building a modified version of the program probably beginning in April 1924, completely missed the courtiers in the other rooms was reduced their size. Was added requirement of establishing a smaller hall with an area of approx. 120 m2, which was to be used for smaller concerts, cabaret, or as a bar or dining room. On the contrary strengthens the amount of buildings, which were profitable: cinema capacity increased to 800 spectators, had set up the Federal Facilities, respectively. casino. Building program, dated 15th April 1924 complements the above-mentioned fact that the function of theater halls combined with the porch - that dance hall and before the facade on the lower end of the land, thus the river Hron, or to the National Street, plans to establish a garden. The last building program, dated 28th June 1924, following the previous requirement that the theater part of the National Home was located at the upper end of the land and cafe-restaurant and hotel to the National Street. An interesting note is that "the only hotel in the future will be built, but should be already in vtenčas organičnom connection throughout the building designed." [The building program and conditions to the design of a National Home in conjunction with a hotel, is having a subsequent issue, dated 28th June 1924, document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch]. Construction of 15 programs or April of 28 June mention the establishment of cinema, but its design in the basement of a theater hall building commission agreed at its meeting on 04.11.1924. Later, in 1929 at its general meeting of City Council concluded that a large hall National house was equipped so that it can also serve for biographical purposes. This finally happened and, although in local newspapers to its location in the National withstand wave of resentment building and long about the importance and necessity of cinema in this building led to the controversy over their website. Building Commission at its meeting of 04/11/1924, which would be discussed received building plans architects Emil Belluš (refers to Daniel, but the confusion is the name of Emil's son Daniel with his father) and Paul Valuch (Walluch) was again adjusting the construction program. Review the plans is found that the construction program is insufficient, ie that a theater is too small and should be larger. "Theatre Hall (Hall) to be 340 m2 big. I have a balcony of 100 seats and also a gallery of 100 seats .- On the balcony to be established on both sides of the box (at least 10-12), in which the fall may be a relatively less seats. Galeria has to have a separate entrance and staircase completely separated from the lobby and balcony. Under the great hall in the basement cinema designed to be a special entrance, smaller wardrobe, required emergency exits, hľadištim of circa 800 people (or box) and the chamber operator. When designing the cinema must be strictly observed police regulations. "[Minutes of the meeting of the National House Building Commission, written on 4-by November 1924, document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch].

During the clarification of the construction program and activities conducted in parallel to obtain building plans. Even in 1921, mesto considered that the construction and operation of the National House abandoned the selected public companies and the city only provide land, building program, architect, case sold two buildings on the Main Square to receive funding (or abandoned houses a company that will build the National House). 21. January 1922 closed the city Administrative Committee at its meeting to be called a successful architect to draw up a proposal for the construction of the National House together with the budget. In its selection of the city turned to for advice to the Ministry of Public Works and it sent a letter with the recommendation of four architects: Dusan Jurkovic, Francis Blažek from Hodonin, Vladimir Fischer and Adolf Liebschnera Brno from Prague. Nevertheless, a town on the Administrative Committee meeting 13/4/1922 and Financial Committee at the meeting on 16 4. 1922 decided to write public concurrence, and, therefore, that the concurrence is known more candidates. However, the Finance Committee also requested the postponement of an invitation to the overlapping of one year, as a shortage of funds. The Administrative Committee's decision taken at the meeting 30.11.1922. Even 19th November of 1923, however, financial commission had stated that funding for the position of national house and still have tried to solve the problem suggests that the YMCU, which at that time intended to build on the National Street its building that it landed on the hall for performances. Such a solution is however not taken off among its members. City still before deciding whether to continue construction of the National House or not. "Convene on the 5.IV.1924 uch a [survey, note. author], consisting of all classes of our citizenship, regardless of religion, political parties, the nationality and status Wanting to obtain a full legal opinion on whether the theater has build, actually the National House yes or no. With pleasure we had to find that the last of the members present have proved that the National House building is necessary despite the fact that it will require great sacrifice as well. (...) It was expressly provided for the question of whether the land is suitable for the construction of the National House, which is in the national street, on top of the amount of forest land Arar. Unanimous conclusion was that "yes" this land is suitable for the construction of the National House. (...) After such an unanimous expression of our citizenship, we have a great taste and desire seized to work again. We have presented the whole matter before the respective forum, tojest an Embassy Choir. And here we are at our greatest consolation - received unanimous approval to the national house built, designed and recognized as suitable land, and we were given the mandate to make this land clothe, and other necessary porobily predpráce. "[National House Building, undated, document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch]. In June 1924 they were invited, four Slovak architects and a construction company into closer competition for the construction of the National House: Alojz Payerberger (also Peierberger), Emil Belluš, Alexander Skutecký, Vojtech (Adalbert also) Holesch and Slovakia-Czech construction company in Banska Bystrica ( Architect Paul Walluch). The deadline to submit proposals is set at 1 August which was later moved to 10 august 1924th Plans were evaluated a panel of experts 9th October (the date refers to October 11). The jury had to conclude that the fifth invited architects submitted plans for only two: under the slogan "the people" Paul Walluch, builder, employed in Slovakia, the Czech accounting. construction company in Banska Bystrica and urban brand címeru architect Emil Belluš. The jury found that the plan did not work at all Paul Wallucha requirements, and therefore recommended to adopt as a basis for the construction of the National House Belluš project. Building Commission, however, in assessing the two plans passed to the "special program that naterajší not today's and future demands and has extended to actually change. Based on these plans and status. Cont. construction is not recommended. "[Minutes, written on 4-by November 1924 meeting of the National House Building Commission, a document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch]. Despite this finding special commission Belluš neodvrhla plan completely. Decided to invite the architect to rework plans with the amended building program. In case of disagreement should write a new competition. Already about two days later, 6-th of November, but the vote of the Administrative Committee nonetheless city decided to contest the statement. The closing date for tenders is set at the end of January 1925.

In the second - to tender for the construction of the National House came total of 64 tenders. Expert panel met on 12th February 1925 and decided to reward a first prize of a tender under the slogan "Time" and author Adalbert G. Sebor Schreiber. Second place won a tender A. Mendel and V. Šatručeka from Prague (password "Slovak Cross 7") and third prize návrh Emil Belluš from Bratislava and A. Šebánka of Sand (password: sign Banska Bystrica). In addition to the first three prizewinners to the jury decided to buy three other proposals, the work of architects and St Alexandra Skuteckého Holescha (password "House"), Otakar Schmidt (password blue label) and J. Zadražila and F. Freedom of Prague (password square with diagonals). The jury ultimately recommended to implement the winning project, with minor changes:

"Social room, located in the lobby recommends the separation between them only glazed partition walls, pillars in the room recommends levying omitted just like the lounge out in I. floor to improved room lighting was top of the window into the yard. Skylight to the mouth of toilets cafe recommends in order to increase access hojnejšieho air and light. "[The minutes of the hearing the jury to assess proposals received in competition in the sketches Nat. House in Banska Bystrica, a document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch]. The results of the competition jury discussed the construction and financial Committee of the town on 17 March with the fact that with the conclusion of the competition commission agrees. The architects of Sebor and Schreiber is scheduled to begin negotiations on further design work. 24. (Or 25, hard to read date) in April 1925, the city building commission meeting with the architects agreed to develop detailed plans and construction management. Construction should not cost more than 4 million. crowns, the internal device is outside the anticipated additional 500,000 dollars. 13. July of that year, sent the architects prepared plans together with the budget. Building Commission at a meeting a day later, however, technical advisor city posters remind shortcomings, which included plans. That was endorsed by the Panel, then responsible for reviewing building plans and the commission plans architects returned for reprocessing. Among the plans are shortcomings o.i. designated shallow roofs, poor form down through a window, a lack of height of hotel rooms and restaurants, and totally inappropriate form of the facade. Architects are with the city agreed to recast plans under the Commission's comments and amended plans re-sent in October of that year. Commission investigating submitted plans, however, had again stated that although some changes in plans occurred, but those are not enough. Upon further review of plans, moreover, there are additional According to city officials 'very bad' shortcomings [Minutes, written on 12 decembra 1925 on the occasion of a house reached by a board examination plan to build the National House, a document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch], which architects have again removed. Against this requirement, however, architects have already objected to the fact that the errors were pointed out to them and subsequently corrected the alleged deficiencies are not mentioned them before. For this reason, architects refused to additionally adjust their plans. Dispute to escalate so much that on his resolve to rule zmierčí court. The decision ruled in favor of the two architects who had drawn mesto pay for plans and court costs. Both parties subsequently agreed that the payment plans will become the property of the city and that they would be able to easily handle. The whole dispute was closed in May 1926. In the meantime, however, preparatory work for the construction of the National House move on. At its meeting on 23 April 1926, the Administrative Committee mesta, decided that the construction will be continuing on the revised plans and specifications of architects and Sebor Schreiber. They will invite the four selected architects to draw up detailed plans Sketch Sebor and Schreiber. Architects were invited Weinwurm, Skutecký, Belluš and Peyerberger. All four architects drew up plans, along with Alexander Skutecký Holeschom architect. The winner will become a restricted Emil Belluš that the city 15th October 1926 instructed to draw up detailed plans and construction management. Plans Belluš gave in November 1926. 30. December it finally special commission to identify the correct and recommend their adoption.

Start of construction of the National House has not stood in the way of any major obstacles. At the meeting of the Municipal Council on 1.6.1927 was chosen for the tender procedure builder Slovakia-Czech accounting. construction company in Banska Bystrica. 19. June 1927 was officially laid the foundation stone of the building. At the meeting of the municipal Council of 24 August 1927 stated that construction continues at the hotel section on the ground floor, where it reached the level of basement walls, the theater section should begin mason foundations and basement walls. Was also a petition to the suterénových premises which are not used, set up a winter bowling. Draft facility bar under a large hall and a side corridor was agreed. At the meeting of the municipal council 29th January 1928 was debated offer owners of adjacent gardens, which offer some of their gardens to create a park in front of the National House. City Council agreed that a park on the upper end of the National House and the purchase of the said gardens with the statement that "the National Street is quite narrow and not enough air, and therefore no prejudice to the National House it is necessary to create a park so Perd Národným house like him. "[Lift the minutes of the municipal council of Banská Bystrica, dated 29-him in February 1928, a document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch].

National House Building has been partially completed in 1929, when the 30th April gave to use hotel part with restaurants and cafes. [Author not listed: National House ... was opened, the box from Banska Bystrica, in: Pohronský watchman, Vol. IV., No.14, 5 April 1929, p.3.]. Theatrical part of the building opened the concert 8th January 1930, although initially considered for the grand opening performance of the Slovak National Theatre - The Bartered Bride and at least dream about Shakespeare in Midsummer Night's Hviezdoslavovo translation, the transferred file to local amateur. Intention, however, came out and the first performance in the theater hall played by local amateurs to 7 February (William Shakespeare: Midsummer Night's Dream, the translation of Paul-Orságha Hviezdoslava with music by Felix Mendelsohn.) Construction requested expense 7,800.000 crowns.

Výtvarné of theater of the building made Professor of Arts and Crafts School in Prague František Kysela and local painter Julius Flach. Podľa Kyselová proposals decorated Grand Hall Theatre, Flach is the author of Allegories of large-scale image of Banská Bystrica in the theater foyer. Even in 1929 it was considered a development of symbolic sculptures on the facade of the National House. There were also exercising their models (and the authors Fric Motoška Jožo Pospisil from Bratislava), but the Supervisory Committee has approved the creation of statues, oi and a lack of funds.

After a tortuous road to the positions of the National House, however, problems did not stop. Besides the two had planned alterations city in coming years to solve the dispute with the architect, who works in the city has accused the deadlines for non-delivery plans, thus building either stopped or delayed. Late delivery of the plans said the cause that they were not using them enough to be thoroughly investigated, "That was erroneously projected stage, came to it, and when assembled povrazište - then had to demolish. Tying Bóly plans came to time, we could be better assessed. "[Minutes of the Building Committee meeting, held on 14.2.1930, document stored in the Record Office in Banska Bystrica - Banská Bystrica branch]. The dispute led up to court, which ruled in favor of the architect. Finally resolved amicably.

As already mentioned above, shortly after the opening of the building have been carried out several modifications. In addition to minor works (building up the hole in the floor of theaters that have been possible to move chairs from hall to the basement for storage, curtains at the terrace cafes, veľkému prevent drafts; adjustments cellars which zatápala groundwater), adjustments related mainly to adapt the restaurant and basement galleries na apartments for one of the owners of the hotel and restaurant staff, requested by hotelier John Herda. Work transferred Slovakia-Czech accounting. construction company in Banska Bystrica. Another adaptation was to be done in 1935. Reasons of the retained documents are not entirely clear, probably played a part in the effort to increase the profitability of construction and also an unspecified dispute with the lodger Matej Matos on rental. City takes to rebuild buildings and special provincial contribution of 400,000 dollars. For this reason, could print the closer ideological competition, in which four invited architects: Emil Belluš, Paul Wallucha, Theodore Kraus and Franz University. However, since the financial contribution was necessary to utilize the end of the year, in a relatively short period of time managed to pass their plans only Walluch architect and Kraus. Conducting further sketches Walluch Paul was in charge. Conversion is related mainly to layout changes in restaurant and café, which should eliminate "wasteful defects and defects of zdravotnopolicajného inadmissible matter. The abandoned bowling alley in the basement, which was used and Economic Justice, on the spot which was established garden. On the south side of the theater building (toward the Hron) briefly examine the hotel rooms, stores for the stage scenery and decorations.

Another building underwent reconstruction in the 50-ies, when the interior of the theater part was rebuilt for the needs of the theater. Among other things, there was an overlap window opening in the theater hall with wooden paneling. The rest passes through the reconstruction of building from 2008. Designed by the architect Peter Kucharovice foresees renovation of buildings and the extension stage povraziska, orchestriska and repair roofs and modern testing and extension of premises for the needs of the State Opera.

After commissioning the theater part of the national house was moved to its premises by local amateurs. Those with occasional performances by the Slovak National Theatre, worked in the building until a professional theater group in the city in 1959. In the building of the National House seat today.

Land where today the State Opera is located, is near the historical center, between the SNP and the central square by the river Hron. Square with cross-river links to river-oriented Narodni Street, which crosses near the center of street J. Cikker and just south of Street F. Švantner. These three streets form the border of a rectangular city block, corner building which occupies the former National House. Depression relatively narrow streets offset open areas of greenery, lying on the north and south side of the building.

Initially, in this part of town situated private gardens with lower family homes and land forest treasury with farm buildings. At the time of construction of the National House began the installation Narodni Street: street corner with today's J. Cikker gradually excluding the National House took the YMCA building and the National Bank.

Idea of the original appearance of buildings provided at least partially preserved articles of local newspapers. In an article in February 1930 he writes: "It's huge and beautiful building built by dedication of citizenship that pride of the city for all times. Admission is adapted from an architecturally beautiful travertine, wide 9 mA 15.5 m high, with a spacious entrance staircase, with an arcade on the first floor and terrace on the second floor. On the side (the waterfront) is elegant underpass for cars and wagons. The whole building is divided into three parts: cultural, cafés and a hotel. Theatrical hall has 340 m2 floor area and 3600 m3 vydušného space accommodates 900 people. Associated with it is a lecture hall of 120 m2 floor area. Coffee room is modern furnished and has a 200 m2 area. The restaurant room has 80 m2 and is now in the café. The hotel section has 50 rooms on two floors with the appropriate fully furnished with modern bathrooms. Sinks for hot and cold water in each room. The left side of the hotel's restaurant is equipped with a balcony. This section is also the restaurant kitchen. The cellar is modern and spacious ľadiareň winter bowling. "[Author not listed: the National House in Banska Bystrica, in: Pohronský watchman, Vol. V., No. 6, 7 February 1930, p. 1]. Article V of 24 January of that year provided a fuller description of the theaters: "The ground is 420 comfortable seats in the 21 councils, 12 of which stands on a stepped floor increased, so the last 4 rows are increased by 21 cm. Seats on the ground floor are arranged so that in the short term may be empty and furnished room as a dance hall. Balcony has 12 boxes and 4 increased stepwise Council with 79 seats. Google has increased 7-series with 125 seats



Author: Viera Dlhánová

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