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Divadlo Jonáša Záborského - novostavba

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(detail)14.9.1990 | opening


Professional theater company in Prešov was established under the name of Slovak Theatre in 1943 and began operating a year later, an opening introduction Francis Urbanek leprechaun (30/01/1944). Together in a theatrical set, Martin was at the beginning of the process of formation of professional theater companies in the small Slovak village, which continued in forties and fifties of the 20th century. Reason for delay in the onset of professionalism in Slovak theater lies in the specific situation of the Slovaks. The political situation before 1918 form is allowed only amateur group of actors that even after an independent state of Czechs and Slovaks long been present possibilities and courage to embark on the uncertain path of professionalisation. Only exception was the Slovak National Theatre, founded already in 1920 in Bratislava and Eastern National Theatre in Manchester (founded 1924), however, even those in the early years is difficult to build a base Slovak actors willing to dedicate the theater life. Theatrical activities in the countryside remained to continue to host occasional visits to the National Theatre is still based on amateurism. The situation started changing to mid forties, and especially after 1948 when there was a nationalization of the theater. Already in 1944, Martin was based in the Slovak Chamber Theatre, followed by professional ensembles in Presov, Zvolen, Nitra and Zilina.

The emergence of professional theaters require the creation of new theater spaces that would meet stringent requirements of these institutions. In Slovakia at that time there were either older buildings of 19 theaters century or so multi-functional buildings. Home, which o.i. include the theaters. For the then needs of the modern theater, however, none of them were unsuitable for various reasons. Therefore, there was a greater or lesser extent, to their adaptation. With the ever increasing demands on the theater space was, however, had already made clear that this solution is not sufficient and Slovakia needs a new theater building. In the period after the Second World War and the building of socialism, however, priority was given construction of houses of culture, which originated in large quantities throughout Slovakia. Are financially less demanding and intentions of government policy to make available to the theater between the rural population, which helped spread the ideas of socialism. The implementation of the new theaters are joined to the 70-years. The first new building the theater was just Jonah Záborský Theatre in Prešov.Its construction began to think after establishing a professional file. The first attempt at the design did State School of Civil Engineering, led by Professor Martin Brezina shortly after the war. In 1946-1948 developed an architecture professor from the Technical University in Prague arch. Black proposed a new theater building, but because of this massive intervention in the historical town reserve has not been realized. Subsequent rapid development of the city after World War II led the drafting of a new Master Plan which is designated for the building the theater room for a newly created Lenin Square, Square today legionnaires, in a corner position between the outside court and hotel Dukla. Square, lying on the boundary of the historic core of the city thanks to its location appeared to be most appropriate. In 1959 was written out in a national competition for urban and architectural design of new buildings. Detailed by the Regional National Committee in Presov, in cooperation with the Association of Slovak Architects. The unlimited anonymous architectural competition came a total of 21 tenders. The jury took the assessment of incoming work into account in particular the inclusion of appropriate building to surrounding buildings, the appropriate corresponding architectural forms and ultimately the application of advanced technology solutions in the interior.

It is noteworthy that despite the unique and the first opportunity for Slovakia to seek solutions to ensure active contact with the audience the actor, ie except for a classical proscenium theater and variability in the use of stage and auditorium, which was the very purpose of the competition, "many competitors to facilitate the issue by simply focusing only" to deal with "classical proscenium theater" and the conditions explicitly required variability of stage arrangement addressed. "(Chorváth, Miloš: The competition for theater J. Záborský in Presov, in: Project, Vol. I., 1959, No.11-12, p. 158) or a desire to democratize the creation of spectators in the stands sitting or shifting amfiteatrického solutions offered in the course, largely still in draft occurred balconies.It is also likely to sign the final evaluation of the competition. First prize was not awarded, were the highest rated two jobs, and the two authors of the proposal sheet. Charles Revický and arch. Francis Grobauera Stavoprojekt of Prešov and project architect. Grandpa Vladimir from Bratislava. In 1964 began the tender process proposed by the project architect. Revický and Grobauera. 21. February 1964 by the regional investor service in Manchester approved. In 1971 a project to assess ideological Board, appointed by the Ministry of Culture announced an SSR and restricted to four teams of architectural and urban solutions theater building. Based on the results of the competition was in charge of further development of a project to re-architect. Karol Revický. His sudden death, however, work stopped. As chief designer was then appointed Francis Jesenko who, in close cooperation with other experts in the field of architecture and theater and on the basis of knowledge about the reconstruction of the National Theatre in Bratislava, the Smetana Theatre, the forthcoming construction of the Palace of Culture and reconstruction of the National Theatre in the adjustment threshold Theatre Studio and has produced initial project. Under his leadership, processed in the years 1972-1974 arch. Francis Zbuško and arch. Ladislav Domen implementing the project.

            The project envisaged the construction of two separate buildings, linked by an underground corridor. The first consists of building marketing and distribution networks, the type of building its own building theaters. The first building was realized during the years 1974-1976. Temporarily used in the years 1977-1983 for the purposes of an experimental scene under the name Studio 83rd 28. July 1975 approved by the Ministry of Culture of the feasibility of the other buildings and its initial project. The construction began in late 1977, when the 15th December started rough excavation excavation. Own theater building began building in March 1979, the cornerstone of the building - as a symbolic act, has put ten years previously, in June, the 1969th In 1979, also announced an anonymous public art competition to address the deficiency Theatre (February 1, 1979). Expected completion date is not met, the theater was finally open play William Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream 9/14/1990. Authors interior solution architects were Charles Gregory and Stephanie Mitro.

            Despite its short existence, the theater was performed at a number of performances. Practically since the opening of the new building appeared to be problematic travertine roof lining, through which leaked into the theater interiors. The problem in the nineties of the 20th century dealt with fault sealing silicone sealants. For the short durability of this solution but the problem appeared to seal the roof again. In the year 2005-2006 was to compress the original saved template Titanium plate.

            Jonah Záborský Theatre in Prešov is situated on the north side of the square legionnaires. By its nature a solitary structure corresponds to an overall character of the square, which was created by a loose grouping of buildings, urban closer relations. Was placed in a corner of the square between the court building and a hotel with a front facade oriented to the square. Material object has a hexagon form, from which emerges an inclined plane nadjaviskového space. Used Spis travertine stone tiles and glazed surfaces of contiguous first three facades oriented to the square object creates its architectural expression. The central interior space - a theater replicates the hexagonal form of the building envelope. Hexagonal shape in a smaller scale also has an experimental studio, located in the basement of the auditorium. Around the perimeter rooms are located entertainment, communications and business premises. From the side facing the square are situated on three floors, break entrance spaces for visitors with a cloakroom, a buffet and fajčiarňou, linked to one another-spoke spacious staircases. Back of outer space is reserved for the green-room and office space. A theater has a capacity of 654 seats, the whole space, hence the stage and aspect are designed to allow the use of hydraulic tables of the main stage, sliding rows of seats from the side of safes, wall mounting protihľadiska, eventually exposing the lateral portals to create a classic proscenium, cinerámové, ring or arena theater. In some cases, terms of capacity increase by a further 195 places. Area Chamber is designed simply, exterior walls are lined with acoustic tiles puce. The most impressive element of the area is a ceiling light, formed by a curvilinear surface, slope can be controlled for optimal sound and light effects. Colouring the ceiling in a classic proscenium arrangement varies from pale tones in the back of a dark violet tones in the front.

The experimental hall with seating capacity of 240 offers the same opportunity to spatial change. Its floor is divided into separate triangular and trapezoidal hydraulic tables, which can create different spatial variations. Special anchored in the floor seats and allow the charge to spin. Soffit experimental hall is open, it partially overlaps the network of joints with aluminum slats of a metal cylinder, which over the heads of the audience create the shape of interconnected triangular elements, which correspond to the core curriculum floors. Puce walls are covered with acoustic tiles, the floor is light brown carpet.

Access to both the hall from the foyer on the first floor, respectively. in the basement. Foyer on the ground floor serves as an entrance area. On the second floor is situated a smoking room buffet. So suterénového foyer is granted access to the underground parking lot. Element-relationship linking all the floors are the stairwells. Foyer on the ground floor is also divided into several levels, connected by several stepped. The different levels are available to different theatrical spaces, such as dressing-room audiences. Materials addressing these areas is based on contrasts and subtle hard rock metal and glass structures. The floor in the central part of the entrance foyer on the ground floor is stone, in other spaces used carpeting wine red color. Walls, columns and stairs are stone, stair railing is made of chrome-plated pipes and glazing. Significant element interiors are custom ceilings, designed as a system of metal pipe joints and the area filling, forming a triangular outline. The cafeteria is a strict geometric form ceilings vlniacimi softened the lines of metallic elements and elaxovaných the side walls and the sill utility board. Interior art is completion of the tapestry Veruna Junekovej-Melčákovej in the foyer on the second floor, as well as sculpture, Ladislav Snopek, Vladko Snopková and Dusan proposition. Large foyer areas are also used as exhibition space. 



Author: Viera Dlhánová

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