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(detail)1854 | construction

History

Former main center of Central Slovakia region Spis, Levoča may question the theater boasts for several firsts. Not only among the neighboring towns oldest theatrical tradition, the first built and own the theater building. In the 17th and 18 century, the theater played in local Protestant and Jesuit school, from the late 18 century, the city also attended tutoring professional theater company. Until 1826, it was the only German company, because until this year is the first documented arrival of Hungarian theater group. Thanks to strong German character of the region, settlement since the 12th century colonists from Germany, however, Hungarian firms between Spiš theater-goer promoted very difficult. Dominant position to be here since 1902, making them a considerable amount of help the city-based activities in Levoca Hungarian Association for the promotion of Theatre (1891). Similar cultural associations emerged from the second half of the 19th century across the country and their primary role was to support and dissemination of Hungarian culture among the Slovak population. In the 19th century the town was a center of Slovak national movement. Among other things here in the years 1845-1847 there were theater Private Slovak amateurs. They played in a private house Probstnerovcov substantial burgher family, where i have previously performed by professional German actors. Since 1827, the city is supported by the Royal City Theatre (the exact wording on theater posters stated "they hiesigen K. städtischen neuerbauten Theater", by Garlic-Michalcová, Milena: Theatre in Levoca, in: Slovak Theatre, Vol. 27, 1979, No. 3, p. 391-413, here 393), under which should be provided wherever Milena garlic-Michalcová understand theater hall in urban inn K Reich eagle, which burned down in 1849 [Garlic-Michalcová, Milena: Theatre in Levoca, in: Slovak Theatre, Vol. 27, 1979, No. 3, p. 391-413, 393rd here - According to Ivan Lacika However, there is theater played up in the years 1842-1849. - Ivan Lacika Historical Theatre Architecture in Slovakia in Central European context. In: Slovak Theatre. Theatre Historical Architecture in Slovakia, National Theatre Centre 1996, Annex paged]. The history of today's theater in Levoca binds to the period mid-19th century. According to some researchers [Milena Garlic-Michalcová, cd] was a direct stimulus to the fire of that inn in 1849, according to other [Flemming Eva: Reconstruction of the theater and hotel in peaceful square, in: Project, Vol. XXI, 1979, no. 6-7, p. 41-43; memory surveys reported in sources] However, the construction had already begun about eight years earlier, the mention of the fire. In 1853, respectively, in the years 1841-1853 were rebuilding an older inn, K Reich eagle and from a built theater in the side wings. Author of the conversions is not known. The theater was opened in 1854. During the years 1913, here was  performed plazy mostly by German and later the Hungarian theatrical company. Performances are in the hall played probably after 1913, whereas the cinema owner got permission to adapt the premises to the condition that the operation over hosting troupes stopped. [Chalupecký, Ivan: A History of Levoca 2, Košice 1975, p. 208th]. After World War II are documented in the city speeches Czech-Slovak and Slovak professional theaters, no doubt you also played amateur files, which arose after the war in Levoca more. Already before 1945 are held here regularly theater district races, which in 60-ies have established the Regional survey of amateur theater groups. Currently the building is in the report of the Cultural Center, which also regularly organizes cultural events and theater. 
On the site of today's opera house stood before the year 1528 three Gothic burgher houses burnt . In 1590 they bought from original owners of the city and two of them rebuilt the town inn. In the first half of the 16th century were all three houses towards square podlublie (repealed in the years 1787-1821). In 1664 the building was structurally restored and re-used as a hotel and tavern. Since 1786, it settled dôstojícke barracks until 1804, when the floor was again adapted to the hotel. Followed by large Classicist reconstruction connecting the third side of the house and the annex building and rear wings (1820-1826). The rear part of the side wings subsequently passed in the years 1841-1853 to adapt to the theater. At the same time it had been building in front of the square increased by a further floor and briefly examine the segment stairs at the end of the side wings. The form object is changed again since 1870. The stimulus was, according to Ivan Chalupecký decision of the municipal council, which decided that the construction of public buildings special attention. [Chalupecký, Ivan: A History of Levoca 2, Košice 1975, p. 144th] The plan included, inter alia, the extension of the theater. Conversion of the building began in 1870, setting up coffee shops ground floor towards the square. The following year built a new ballroom on the first floor. The plan's author should be by Ivan Chalupecký Schmiedtovci Louis and Alexander, but Eva Flemming points out that journal Zipser Anzeiger 1872 states as author alterations halls and theaters arch. Müller. Brothers Schmiedtovci constituted an enforcement component. [Flemming, Eva: Reconstruction of the theater ... cd , P. 41]. After the district hall to situate the raised dais and the room is decorated by large mirrors, ordered from Vienna, as well as chandeliers and wall lamps. The last task was rebuilding the theater. Led by the architect Müller. Proposed aspect with two rows of boxes and galleries around the perimeter and painted ceilings. Fit into it about 200 people. In this same theater was opened on 15 December 1872 amateur performances. [Chalupecký, Ivan: č.d., p. 146th] Small changes initiated theater town after a tragic fire Ringtheatru in Vienna, when the gallery set up two new exits and reworked the door, opening initially inside. Subsequently in 1883, transferred the foyer of the ballroom set up and modified the interior of the Renaissance theater adaptations, insertion Articles architectural pilasters, cast iron pillars and ceilings unburnt. Also built a wall, setting out the access corridor around the point of view. In this period has probably three-shoulder  staircase, replacing stair segment. [Ivan Chalupecký dates back to 1883 unspecified adaptation of a dance hall designed by the architect Anton Müller. Surface exploration and project tasks from 1981 only mentions the establishment of the vestibule. - Ivan Chalupecký: č.d., p. 146; papers placed in the springs].

After this period of significant change was followed by nearly one hundred year period during which the building made only minor adjustments. It was the number of extensions in the inner courtyard, putting the wioden floor in theaters (1902), adaptation of the dance hall into a cinema (1937) and interior trim theater after World War II. [As Chalupecký Ivan, cd, s.146; surface survey of 1981 quoted in sources]. Ivan Chalupecký, referring to reports in the journal Zipser Bote, referring also to adapt the theater into a cinema hall in 1913, during which the gallery has established Projection booth, by the previous two side doors upon to replace a ground floor entrance in the middle, adjust the lighting and the theater was painted . [Chalupecký Ivan, č.d., s.146] During adaptation theaters in 1954 was replaced by stucco soffit woodcemair, cast iron columns are overlaid with wood, adjust the guardrail on lóžach and coated with the red leatherette. [Flemming, Eva: Reconstruction of the theater ... cd , P. 41]. Despite the modern twist, the theater space not used adequately, because in the late 70-ies the entire building located in a desolate state and local libraries in addition to plants, wastewater collection point and promotion studio on the ground floor of the House education building was abandoned and its overall performance in the most exposed part of the city perceived as inappropriate. Since 1979, therefore, prepared the costly reconstruction and rebuilding, including in addition to building the theater and adjacent civic house. While the former was appointed by objects other than the theater for amateur ensembles and occasional speeches professionals also provide space for holding plenary meetings, dances and performances in estrádnych ballroom and further space for café and restaurant next door was intended to establish the hotel. Functioning of both objects should be partly linked to operations in particular restaurants. Work took place in the years 1985 to 1996 by Joseph Bradac project of the National Institute for the reconstruction of historical sites and buildings in Prague. Made their Pamiatkostav Žilina (the privatized construction company Ogurčák Levoca). Main interventions related to the internal courtyard, where there was a removal of modern extensions stairways and other areas. At the level of the ground floor courtyard held the store for a restaurant and theater space hardware, thereby increasing the level of the courtyard a few meters. Courtyard also received a paving stone, whereas there was envisaged the construction of the outside board scenes for entertainment. Inside the building, several modern walls, that the spaces comply with the new demands of operations in the building. The ground is located in addition to the operation theater and cafe and restaurant with a kitchen. Other floors have served exclusively for the operation theater and ballroom. Broke through the shafts for elevators. For the most part has been the demolition of the truss, which was built anew. The original is preserved only over the space dance hall. Truss has adapted to the needs of theater operations, in part, edited for residential units. A new feature of the truss is outwardly manifested in the construction of the roof dormers. The entire building has undergone restoration of stucco decoration, metal and stone cells and upgrading elimination of architectural elements (windows, jambs, string courses etc.). Swapped out the doors and windows. Partly changed the appearance of facades minor changes of inputs and windows. By the square on the facade acknowledged part of the original arcade. Installed a new air conditioning, electrical, heating and water supply. The auditorium theater hall to remove inappropriate additions, especially leatherette lining balcony parapets and wooden pillars lining boxes. Parapets, the portal also received a new stucco ceiling decoration. The original wooden folding chairs were exchanged for upholstered chairs, carpeted floor has disappeared. Completely installed, the new technique Staging, established the orchestrisko. The building of the Municipal Theatre in Levoca is situated in the historic city as corner building semidetached houses, forming one of the parties to the main city square - the historical center. The building footprint to U is its two shorter arms built to the adjacent hotel building, which defines a relatively large inner courtyard. Arm oriented to the square is the oldest building structure, originally merged three Gothic burgher houses. Today it is located running restaurants and cafes at ground floor and a large ballroom space and preparing food on two upper floors. Side arm object-oriented to nameless streets, at right angles to joining the square, came later than the completion period of classicism. On the ground floor is situated in a back office and theater on the higher of two floors of a theater itself diffusing compartments viewers. The rear wing of the building, facing the convent street, on the ground floor is reserved for engine Theatre, and upper two floors for the greenroom and storage areas. Part of the technical operation is situated on the ground floor and the inner court. Therefore, the Court compared the level of the street level of several meters increased.

Facade of the building towards the square footage of window width of eight axes, decomposing on three floors. Ground points bosážové lining, separate from the upper floors string courses. The lining of the upper floor is smooth. The existence of the original arcade on the ground floor is the width of the third and fourth window axis granted space, open through a pair of arcade arches in the square. Other areas on the ground floor facade divided initially semicircular window openings that are now bricked up, so creating an area of the facade only shallow niches. Them are secondary embedded rectangular windows, possibly showcases announcements. Portrait-oriented first floor windows with rounded ends are inserted into a shallow rectangular niches. Smooth lining their lines with a simple keystone at the top of the window arch. Windows are based on subtle below the windows, lintel cornice was applied on top of the window. From its windows but it separates the smooth suprafenestra. Significantly below the second floor windows are in the form of associated Romanesque windows hint of mullion. Similar to the first floor windows, and they rely on below the windows and windows terminates smooth suprafenestra lintel and cornice. Considerably extended and gutters is a significant element of separation between the facade and gabled roof, divided vikierikovými small windows and chimney elements.  Façade is oriented to the nameless streets, broken buttresses symmetrically placed in the outer window width of four axes. Form of windows on all floors with ground floor bosážovým replicate deal facades oriented to the square. Central to the background printed časť applied contrast only a simple rectangular window openings with a smooth plaster architraves and smooth without rustications. Accented element is central here, up to the second floor extending niche with a stone entry portal and semi-circular window. Translation of the upper stone portal with lateral brackets constitute a form of donkey back. Middle portion of the side façade accentuate the modern roof dormers, its location replication distribution windows lower floors. 
 Back eight part facade replicates both the form mentioned fronts. West corners in the windows width three axes form bears the facade, facing the square, the rest of the rear facade is divided regularly spaced rectangular windows with smooth ribbonwork. A third person on the ground floor occupied by the staff entrance with rounded smooth lining and central keystone. Width of the roof in the first five axes divided like the side facade of the roof dormers. 
 The main entrance to the theater space is located across from Square arcade room and entrance hall. There is a remarkable Gothic stone portal, maintained in the lining between the two spaces. Hall is topped by a cross vault abutting the central pillar. From this it is possible to access an area of the staircase and elevator to higher floors, as the area of restaurants and cafes. Staircase leads to the two upper floors, at the first floor it may enter directly into the ballroom to the viewer or closet on the southeast side of the side wings. Staff input into the theater part of the building is situated on a side street through underpass, head through the stair treads in his exalted end of the courtyard. On the left side of the underpass are a private seller premises and administrative parts of the current administrator Theatre (Community Centre), spread around the hall floor plan letter L. From this passage is open and semi-staircase floor plan, allowing access to the theater lobby on the first and second floors. A theater is located in the western corner of the side wings, before it was located on both floors foyer. At the level of the first floor foyer goes directly to the dressing rooms before the dance hall. Cloakroom is common for visitors to ballroom and theater. First floor foyer divides the number of degrees in two different height levels. Finish floor is stone tile ceiling is decorated with perforated soffit. Maybe it get to the smoking lounge, which also serves as a transition to the courtyard. Different height levels, together with an identical finish ceiling and floor tiles have been applied also in the foyer of the second floor. At its end is situated a small buffet.

            Theatre hall, occupying the western corners of the side wing of the building contains a horseshoe footprint considerations with two rows of boxes and galleries around the perimeter and relatively shallow rectangular stage. Balconies carried a subtle metal posts. The width of the third box in each separate partitions French type. Completely separate units are only box next to the portal, defined first and full second floor walls. Today it is used for placement of equipment stage. The face is framed by the high number of Corinthian columns. Balcony parapets are decorated with fine stucco decorations in the form of rectangular and round discs. Stucco strip members and the ceiling area. Rectangular area beyond the proscenium and the semicircular space perspective, moreover, divided radially pointing to the central oculo, follow the basic curve footprint perspective. In the central oculo is gripped large crystal chandelier. Basic color solution space is white with gilded details (railings of balconies, part stucco decoration). Metal pillars of the balconies are painted black, covering wallpaper wall boxes.

            Dancing hall has a rectangular size, occupies the southern part of frontal lobe, leading to the square. From the north has over its entire width built narrow balcony. The eastern wall, oriented to the square, two rows of broken windows. Walls are structured intermediate cornices and pilasters, ceiling awarded translation creates substantial rectangular ceiling décor. Elements of pilasters and rectangular dots decorate balcony parapet, carried volute brackets. Color solution is decorated in shades of pink, white and gold. Significant decorative accessory area is also large crystal chandeliers. The ballroom space and belong to two small rooms designed for a buffet or food preparation at the first and second floors, connecting to the north wall of the hall. 


 

 

 

Author: Viera Dlhánová

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