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Bábkové divadlo Košice (Tajovského ul.)

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(detail)1995 | Opening


Roughly two decades since the end of World War II was characterized in the Slovak general building professional theater network. In the period around  the 1944 drama and opera theaters in Martin, Presov, Nitra (1949), Zvolen (1949), Žilina (1950), Spišska Nová Ves (1957), Banska Bystrica (1959), Trnava (1960) and other cities. This basic network of theatrical institutions with regional coverage added theaters closer focus, particularly non-national (through 1945, Komarno, 1952, Košice 1969), and theater for children - initially only puppet (Žilina 1950, Nitra 1951, Bratislava 1957, Košice 1959, Banská Bystrica 1960 ), and later drama (Trnava 1974, S.N.Ves 1979). Nationalization in 1948 theaters and their important position in the eyes of the communist state is for them to create appropriate conditions for development (of course within the limits of state-sponsored ideological orientation), but especially from the beginning had to cope with problems of suitable premises. In the period after World War II stood on the territory of Slovakia eight specialized theater buildings, but of which only three were in Bratislava and at the mercy of all came not from the 19th or early 20th century. This corresponded to their available space in many cases, hardware. Beyond them there was a relatively high number of multifunctional cultural buildings, built out of other functions and activities for local theatrical amateurs, but the need for professional theater to provide even more limited options as historical theaters. Nevertheless, after the necessary adjustments, often inadequate, gros most historic buildings and cultural buildings have become the seats of many years of professional theaters. Bold vision of progressive state of confusion was shipwrecked on a new modern architecture and cumbersome state after a coup in 1989, again in financial problems. Nevertheless managed to build five new buildings with complete facilities and one modern extensions, additional missing function of older buildings. As most here seem to be damaged theaters with a narrower focus and smaller audience base, is non-national and puppet theaters, which, despite the preparatory documents to remain a single case without exception. Still remained adapted to operate in areas predominantly of historic buildings, built primarily for purposes other than theater.

That case is also building Puppet Theatre Košice, built according to the established view of the needs of the Masonic Lodge in unclear time of day. Theatre has become established at 1986, when they moved here to lead the institution, respectively, in 1995, when they started using the space for theater productions (Theatre Jorik).

The appearence of the building  is between research  many uncertainties. Although most authors specify the time of the exact date of their arguments differ only in the range of nearly fifties. The three authors of a monographic publication on Manchester Zdenek Nemec, Joseph and Christine Duchoň Rybárová dating rise buildings already in the late 19th century, precisely in 1899. This argument took the view in the publication of the architecture of the 20th Slovakia century writers Matthew Dull and Henrieta Moravčíková [Nemec, Zdenek - Duchon, Jozef - Fisherman, Kristina: Košice 1780-1918, Parchment Sečovce 1994, p. 208-209; Enclosure - Moravčíková, Henry: Architecture of Slovakia in the 20th century, Slovart Bratislava 2002, p. 290]. A little later, in 1912, dates the emergence of other buildings by conversion object puppet theater in the monograph Slovak Theatre [Mitro, Stephen: Puppet Theatre in Manchester, in: Slovak Theatre. Contemporary Slovak Theatrical Architecture, National Theatre Centre Bratislava 1998, ISBN 80-85455-54-4, Annex paged]. Finally, research, running during the upcoming renewal sites, refer to the period of the 40's of 20th century. [State Institute for Communications - Spojprojekt Bratislava, Kosice Studio: the reconstruction of monuments. Reconstruction of the house at No Tajovského. 4, 1987, prepared Ing. Murtin. Regional Monuments Board in Manchester, inv. No. 39/93; State Institute for Communications - Spojprojekt Bratislava, Kosice Studio: Puppet theater - Tajovského 4, Košice. The study of such areas. December 1986, prepared Ing. Murtin. Regional Monuments Board in Manchester, inv. No. Z/255/93.]. None of the above-mentioned sources does not source from which they drew on that information, because it is in either case can not be verified. Since historicism form of street facades, however, such arguments appear correctly on an earlier dating of the building. To a large extent the information appears as a major author of two publications from the years 1914 and 1924, active member of the Masonic Lodge Resurrexi Kosice - William Benczúr. Both publications are mentioned, inter alia, the construction of buildings, which have to operate the bed Resurrexi built between 1913 and 1914 by architect plans Kosice Vojtech Šipoš [Bencsúr, Vilmos: A Kassa sprouts. Dolgov. : Resurrexi "ttszkves története 1899-1924, Košice 1924, p. 10-11; Bencsúr, Vilmos: A Kassai Szabadkőmüvesség 1870-1913. Haladas Egyetértés Resurrexi, Košice 1914, p. 23-25]. Its exact location, however, mention, therefore remains uncertain whether this is just about a given building. Lounge Resurrexi was in Manchester has been operating since 1889, according to Martin Arber, dealing with the history of Freemasons in Kosice, was until 1925 the only [Maple, Martin: Masonic Košice. History Masonic movement in Manchester, Publishing Sofa, Bratislava 2010, p. 89-106]. More light on the problem, therefore, brought a period of clarification of the building. [It may be mentioned that due to the absence of sources on which the building was given to scholars function Masonic Lodge, may also doubt the accuracy of this information. The proof is cautious statement Martina Javora. There is no doubt that had information on an existing building, the current puppet theater, though in relation to the building box Resurrexi writes: "despite some evidence I can not say for sure that the site in question." Mitro said Stephen object appointed only as a bourgeois house. The benefit features the Masonic Lodge in contrast, points in reference to the Letter to the immovable monuments preserved photograph of the facade, which still bears the unspecified features of the Freemasons. - Maple, Martin C. d., p. 120; Mitro, Stephen: Puppet Theatre in Manchester, in: Slovak Theatre ..., c. d., paged Annex; Update list immovable national cultural monuments, processed Hrin Paul, July 2003. Archive Memorials Office in Manchester.].

Exactly prescribed acts of Masonic rituals, which were an important part of the activity box, conditional and special space requirements, which abstained. Many lodges, however, only space interpersonal contacts lease, which meant that some of the ideal solution had to regret. However, as stated Tomas Srb, which in its publications, the Order of Freemasons in detail analyzed the prescribed form Masonic "Temple", or the possibility of building their own buildings did not guarantee compliance with this ideal model: "We have already emphasized that the room really find the ideal proportions for the Masonic Temple is practically impossible. Most rooms are rather more than less deviates from the prescribed pattern. "[Srb, Thomas: The Order of Freemasons, Eminent Prague 2003, p. 47]. Kosice Masons owned since 1870 Lozovo book, prepared by grandmasters box Haladas Earl Teodor Csáky, which was employed in the city before the emergence Resurrexi box. After her disappearance former members created a new lóžu Egyetértés and again after they break box formed lóžu Resurrexi. To some extent there is a way to maintain continuity, which may involve that the basic rules of operation of the Association retained without change. The sixth part of the book is devoted to an ideal form Lozovo "temple". Appointed a few basic rules disposal with track building and the demands which the formalized rooms. Of those who have had an impact on the overall structure of space may be mentioned the necessity of the seven function rooms with a hallway, rooms for visitors, halls, lodges, black chambers (min. 1, max. 5), official rooms and rooms (apartment) on duty brother. Although the Count Csaky explicitly mentioned, the general rules of Masonic lodges was also a rectangular box plan (within the meaning of the main assembly room) and its orientation in the direction of east - west, where the lack of windows in this room, and access a single entry from the west. [Lozovo book, prepared by Earl Teodor Csáky, grandmasters box Haladas in 1870, in Maple, Martin C. d., Annex. 3, p.142-203]. Building today's puppet theater but shall not be other than rectangular assembly rooms or one of the rules in question, though the comparison with historical photos suggests that the big hall on the Floor of the minimum street party with no blocker. Once the building has undergone minor modifications during its existence, most construction modifications and extensions, therefore, retained its shape can be considered authentic. [Project under National Institute of Telecommunications - Spojprojekt Bratislava, Kosice Studio: the reconstruction of monuments. Reconstruction of the house at No Tajovského. 4, 1987, prepared Ing. Murtin. Regional Monuments Board in Manchester, inv. No. 39/93; Update list immovable national cultural monuments, processed Hrin Paul, July 2003. Kosice Regional Monuments Board.].

Even before the arrival of puppet theater in the building (1986) but was adapted home, west facade, facing the street. Its original form we know from the preserved historical photographs [published in: German, Zdenek - Duchon, Jozef - Fisherman, Kristina: Košice 1780-1918 cd ..., p. 209], on which to watch a trio of rectangular niches with figural sculptures in the left upper deck and a large thermal window in the same amount on the right side. It can be seen in the hemispheric metal dome over the smaller hall in the southern part of the building. Photo of 1987 captures the facade, however, has no dome and no one confused and thermal windows rectangular windows.

During the upcoming reconstruction of the home scenes of puppet theater on Roosevelt Street building was temporarily appointed to serve puppeteers. Great Hall to be adapted to a variable of multi scene for approx. 100 spectators. Architectural layout should remain unchanged original condition with the exception of the expansion of social facilities. After restoring the home scenes here should establish a "study of young", which would remain under the administration of puppet theater. The planned rehabilitation of the neighboring building raised the vision of the completion of the necessary areas of study (especially theatrical background) in the new building. Constantly odďaľujúci term reconstruction work to start home stage puppet theater, and ultimately the loss of the building forced the theater building used for Tajovského street permanently. In the second half of the 90-ies was conducted its reconstruction and modernization, which were adaptations of the neighboring buildings on Alžbetina burgher houses and street porters (architect Stephen Mitro). Object on the street Tajovského undergone only minor changes in disposition, počítajúcimi úpravu buffet area and social facilities and painting, or façades. The buildings on the corner Alžbetina and porters set up the main street is a theater with a capacity of about 100 spectators, were placed in the attic greenroom, rehearsal and workshop. Internal courtyard, which concluded among themselves building, has been adapted for the needs of the implementation of small theatrical forms, summer courses and the like. In the basement of the building would have had closet viewers, warehouses and workshops arise theater cafe. Part of the premises on the ground floor is used for commercial purposes. The main hall in the house on the street Alžbetina used for puppet performances in the hall of the building at street works Tajovského experimental drama studio under the name Theatre Jorik, aimed for young viewers and adults.



Author: Viera Dlhánová

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